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Flashcards in Neural And Chemical Control Of Respiration Deck (21):
0

The nervous system integration with the respiratory system is designed to maintain normal blood levels of....

Oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions

1

What part of the brain generates the basic thing rhythm?

The brainstem

2

What influences the brain stems control over the basic breathing rhythm?

Ventilatory reflexes

3

What controls respiratory rate and depth?

Blood gas concentrations and lung stretch receptors

4

What is the most important factor for control of respiratory drive at rest?

Arterial Pco2

5

What do central chemoreceptors detect?

Changes in arterial Pco2 ( via the H+ content of the CSF)

6

What do peripheral chemoreceptors detect?

Changes in arterial Po2, Pco2, pH

7

Where are the major peripheral chemoreceptors?

Aortic arch and carotid sinus

8

What makes up the central pattern generator in the medulla?

Dorsal respiratory group and the vernal respiratory group

9

Are inspiratory and expiratory neurons segregated from one another or intermingled?

Intermingled

10

Where does central pattern generator input come from?

Higher brain centers and peripheral and central chemoreceptors

11

For inspiration, how are the DRG and the VRG connected to the phrenic nerve and the spinal nerves?

Spinal respiratory motoneurons

12

For expiration, how is the VRG connected to spinal nerves?

Spinal respiratory motoneurons

13

What innervates the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

14

What innervates the intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles?

Spinal nerves

15

During eupnea, when is action potential frequency the highest?

During inspiration

16

Describe expiration action potentials during eupnea:

Occur, but infrequently because expiration is passive.

17

During hypernea, where are the two peak Action potential frequencies seen?

1- during end inspiration in the phrenic or intercostal muscles
2- during end expiration in the abdominal or internal intercostals

18

What is the Hering- Breuer inflation reflex?

An inspirations stopping reflex mediated through the slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors via Vagal afferents and phrenic efferents

19

I'm humans, when is the Hering- Breuer inflation reflex important?

During periodic deep breaths, during exercise, and during COPD

20

Describe kussmaul breathing

Deep and labored desperate and gasping breathing associated with severe metabolic acidosis.