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Flashcards in oxygen transport Deck (48):
1

what are the effects of the following factors on the O2 disassociation curve:
increased PCO2
decreased pH
fetal Hg
increased 2,3 DPG
increased temperature

increased PO2, decreases pH, 2,3-DBG and increased temp all shift curve to right
fetal hg has a L shifted curve

2

what does fetal Hg have a left shifted curve

because it doesn't have beta subunits

3

where does 2,3 DPG bind on hemoglobin?

the beta subunit

4

the bohr effect is referring to the effects of what to stimuli?

increased PCO2 and decreased pH

5

what does a curve shifted to the Right mean?

higher oxygen disassociation

6

can we measure the rate of O2 usage by the tissues?

not directly

7

what are the two ways oxygen can go after being delivered to the tissues?

it can be used by the tissues or it can be taken up by the venous blood

8

what is the equation of the rate of delivery of O2 to the tissues?

oxygen content in the blood x cardiac output

9

what characterizes stagnant hypoxia?

-normal arterial partial pressure and concentration of O2
-decreased venous oxygen partial pressure and concentration
-cardiac output is decreased
-Extraction is increased

10

what characterizes hypoxic hypoxia?

decreased partial pressure and concentration of O2 in both the arteries and veins while the extraction stays normal

11

what is the main cause of stagnant hypoxia

CHF

12

what are some causes of hypoxic hypoxia?

high altitude
diffusion problems
hypoventilation

13

what characterizes histotic hypoxia? when can this occur?

-Normal partial pressure and concentration in arteries of O2
-Increased partial pressure and concentration of O2 in the veins
-Because extraction is reduced
-This can occur when there is poisoning of tissue metabolism by heavy metals, cyanide or other toxins

14

what characterizes anemic hypoxia?

-Normal partial pressure of O2 but decreased O2 concentration
-Decreased venous partial pressure and concentration
-Normal extraction

15

what characterizes CO poisoning?

-Results from substitution of CO for oxygen bound to Hg
-CO takes up the O2 binding sites
-Minor effect: left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve

16

describe the correlation of smoking with CO

Cigarette smoke contains up to 4% CO which can result in 5-10% reduction in O2 transport capacity

17

Where is the pneumotaxic center/ pontine respiratory group located?

In the pons....the nucleus parabrachialis medialis and the Kolliker fuse nucleus

18

Where is the DRG located?

Bilaterally in the nucleus of the tracts solitaries

19

What does the DTS consist of mostly?

Inspiratory neurons

20

Where is the VRG located?

Bilaterally in the retro facial nucleus, the nucleus ambiguous, and the nucleus retroambifualis

21

What type of neurons does the VRG primarily consist of?

Inspiratory and expiratory neurons

22

What is the Botzlinger complex?

A cluster of expiratory neurons in the VRG that generate pacemaker activity associated with the respiratory rhythm

23

What is the function of the pontine respiratory group?

Fine tune the resp pattern

24

No respiration is a characteristic of what level transaction?

Level IV

25

Irregular, gasping breathing is a characteristic of what level transaction?

Level III

26

Slower frequency and larger tidal volumes with lower infrequency breathing is characteristic of what level transaction?

Level II

27

Normal breathing is characteristic of transaction at what level?

Level I

28

When does apneusis occur?

Is occurs when there is a transaction at level II and the vagus is cut. It is characterized by longer inspiration phases ans short passive expirations.

29

What happens when there is both a transaction at level I and the vagus is cut?

Increased tidal volume with decreased frequency, but rhythmic breathing

30

Describe Cheyenne-stokes respiration

Abnormal form of breathing pattern characterized by altering periods of hypernea and apnea. You see this in injuries to the brain.

31

Describe cluster breathing (biot's respiration)

Abnormal form of breathing associated with stroke, head trauma, pressure or a lesion in the lower pontine region of the brainstorm.

Take a few breaths and then stop, repeating this cycle.

32

Describe ataxic breathing

Characterized by completely irregular series of inspirations and expirations with irregular pauses and increasing periods of apnea

33

Why do the capillary partial gas pressures equilibrate with the alveolar, and not the other way around?

- The alveolar compartment has much more volume than the capillaries

34

What happens to DLCO in severely anemic patients?

- ventilation rate is increased, and cardiac output is increased since there is not enough O2 in the blood --->DLO2 is actually increased

-however there is a decrease of hemoglobin (due to the anemia) so it appears that DLCO is decreased

35

Is dissolved oxygen alone enough to meet the metabolic demands of the body?

N0o0o this is why hemoglobin exists

36

Define extraction?

Difference between the percent of O2 in arterial blood minus the percent in venous blood

37

What is P50=?

26 mmHg
This means at 50% saturation of hemoglobin

38

At PaO2=100 mmHg, what percent of hemoglobin is saturated? What percent of the total blood volume is this?

98.5% bound to hemoglobin
20% of total volume

39

At Pao2=40 mmHg,what percent of hemoglobin is saturated? What percent of the total blood volume is this?

75% saturated hemoglobin

40

What is the normal extraction percentage from arterial to venous blood of O2?

4-5%

41

Why is the extraction of O2 such a small number?

It occurs at the plateau of the sigmoid dissociation curve -- cooperative binding

42

How many molecules of O2 does one hemoglobin bind?

4 molecules of O2

43

How is the dissociation curve shifted for venous blood?

To the right since pH is lower

44

What is the function of the plateau in the oxygen dissociation curve?

It permits toleration for hypoxemia
-ensures constant O2 content despite wide variations in PO2

45

How is the oxygen dissociation curve shifted in polycythemia?

Up
-hematocrit and therefore the percent of O2 of the volume of the blood is increased to 30%

46

How is the oxygen dissociation curve shifted in anemia?

Down
-hematocrit is decreased

47

How does P50 change in polycythemia or anemia?

It does not change

48

How does hypoxia influence the amount of hemoglobin?

It upregulates EPO mRNA and protein synthesis
-increases the amount of erythrocytes and therefore hemoglobin