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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (79):
1

Most common soft tissue tumor

Rhabdomyosarcoma

2

Malignancy with the highest mortality?

PNET

3

Formerly known as partial seizure
Initial activation of neurons limited to part of 1 cerebral hemisphere

Focal seizures

4

Most common type of benign epilepsy stndrome with focal seizure

Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike

Rolandic seizure

5

3-10 years old
Outgrown during adolescence
Buccal and theoat tingling and tonic or clonic contraction
Preserved consciousness
EEG: broad based centrotemporal spike

Benign epilepsy syndrome with focal seizure

6

Treatment for benign epilepsy with focal seizure

AED such as carbamazepine

7

Seen in early childhood
Complex partial seizure with ictal vomiting

Benign epilepsy
Panayiotopoulus type

8

Seen in late childhood
Complex partial seizure with visual auras, migrain headache

Benign epilepsy
Gastaut type

9

Early myoclonic infantile encephalopathy starts during the 1st 2 months

Severe myoclonic seizures and burst suppression pattern on EEG

What is the usual cause

Inborn errors of metabolism

10

Similar onset with Early myoclonic infantile encephalopathy but manifests as tonic seizures

Caused by brain malformations or syntaxin binding protein mutation

Ohtahara syndrome

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy

11

Starts as focal febrile status epilepticus and later as myoclonic and other seizure types

Dravet syndrome

Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy

12

Usually 2-12 months
Triad:
infantile epileptic spasms
developmental regression
hypsarrhythmia on EEG

"As if doing sit ups"

West syndrome

13

2-10 years old
Triad:
Developmental delay
Multiple seizure type
Slow waves, polyspike bursts in sleep and slow background in wakefulness

Lennox-Gastaut

14

Treatment for focal seizure

Carbamazepine

15

Treatment for absence seizure

Ethosuximide

16

When to do lumbar tap?

Local guidelines: <18 months

All infants younger than 6 months who present with fever and seizure or at any age if there are symptoms of concern

17

Major risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures

Age <1 year
Duration of fever <24 hours
Fever 38-39C

18

Most common seizure disorder during childhood

Simple febrile seizure

19

Febrile seizure becomes complex type when the duration is _____ and repeat seizures occur within ______

More than 15 mins
Less than 24 hours in between

20

Status epilepticus that has failed to respond to at least 2 medications

Refractory status epilepticus

21

Initial emergent therapy for status epilepticus usually involves

IV diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam

22

What viral infection is most commonly associated with febrile status epilepticus?

HHV 6 and 7

23

Greatest risk of occurrence of subsequent epilepsy when the child has

Neurodevelopmental abnormalities

24

Triad of Imaging Findings in TB Meningitis

Hydrocephalus
Basal enhancements
Infarcts

25

Usual cause of obstructive or non communicating type of hydrocephalus

Aqueduct stenosis

26

CSF flow pattern

Come Let Me Treat Sisa For Lunch Maybe Somewhere in Ayala

Choroid plexus
Lateral ventricle
Foramen of Monroe
Third Ventricle
Aqueduct of sylvius
Fourth ventricle
Lushka/Magendie
Sinus
Arachnoid

27

Prefrontal headache
High fever
Disturbance in smell
Swimming in warm water

Naegleria fowleri

28

Bell's palsy
Systemic disease
Carditis
Cutaneous lesions

Borrelia burgdorferi

29

Ascending paralysis with history of GI infection

Campylobacter

30

Ascending paralysis with history of respiratory infection

Hib

31

Lethargy and irritability
History of viral infection
Chicken pox
Asprin use

Reye syndrome

32

Ocular nerve palsies
History of TB or active TB

TB meningitis

33

Indications for surgery in brain abscess include:
Presence of gas
Multiloculated
Fungal
Associated infection like mastoiditis
And in what location in the brain?

Posterior fossa

34

Empiric treatment for brain abscess

3rd gen cephalosporin and metronidazole

35

Neisseria meningitidis carriage is usually found in this organ

Nasopharynx

36

Preferred treatment for Neisseria meningitis

Ceftriaxone

37

Poor prognostic factors for meningitis

Petechiae <12 hours before admission
Absence of meningitis
Low or normal ESR

38

Antibiotic prophylaxis for meningitis

Rifampin

39

Fulminant form of meningococcemia where there is adrenal hemorrhage without vasculitis, DIC, coma and death

Waterhouse - Friderichsen syndrome

40

Drug of choice for meningococcemia

Penicillin G

41

Antibiotic prophylaxis in meningococcemia for children and adults

Children: rifampin 4 doses
Adults: Ciprofloxacin single dose

42

Sepsis, seizure, irritability, lethargy, bulging fontanelles, rigidity, patient less than 2 months old

GBS

43

Headahce, fever, confusion, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, vomiting

No proper vaccination
<5 years old

Hib

44

Headahce, fever, confusion, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, vomiting

Properly vaccinated, abrupt onset, toxic looking rashes all over

N. meningitidis

45

Headahce, fever, confusion, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, vomiting

Young adults

S.pneumonia
Pneumococcus

46

Headahce, fever, confusion, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, vomiting

Renal transplant patient

Listeria

47

Headahce, fever, confusion, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, vomiting

Gradual onset, not toxic looking

Enterovirus

48

Headahce, fever, confusion, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, vomiting

RBC in CSF

HSV

49

Most severe form of neural tube defect

Meningocele

50

Meningocele results from the failure of the neural tube to close in the week of development

3rd and 4th

51

Most common site of meningocele

Lumbosacral

52

Meningocele is associated with what type of Arnold Chiari malformation?

Type 2

53

Arnold Chiari malformation that includes elongation of cerebellar tonsils in the vertrebral canal

Type 1

54

What type of Arnold Chiari malformation includes elongation of the posterior vermis and brainstem with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus?

Type 2

55

What type of Arnold Chiari malformation includes a bony defect at occipitocervical level with herniation of cerebellum into encephalocele?

Type 3

56

Pathogenesis of aura in migraine is called

Cortical spreading depression

57

Prophylaxis for migraine

Propanolol

58

Neurocutaneous syndromes usually arise from a defect in differentiation of this embryonic structure

Primitive ectoderm

59

Tuberous sclerosis has characteristic brain lesions called tubers that are usually present in what area of the brain?

Subependymal region

60

In tuberous sclerosis, The tubers in the brain undergo calcification and produce this appearance in imaging

Candle dripping appearance

61

Infantile spasm
Hypopigmented lesions -ash leaf
Shagreen patch- orange peel lesion in lumbosacral region
Subungual fibromas

Mulberry retinal tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma of the heart

Tuberous sclerosis

62

Von recklinghausen disease is located on what chromosome?

Chromosome 17

63

Most prevalent type of neurofibromatosis

NF 1

64

Cafe au lait spots sparing the face are included in the criteria for diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. How many should be present?

6 or more that is >5mm in prepubertals and >15 mm in post pubertals

65

How many criteria should be fulfilled for the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis?

2/7

66

Hamartomas within the iris in neurofibromatosis is also called

Lisch nodules

67

This finding is present in NF 2

Acoustic neuroma

68

Infection usually implicated in the development of Guillain Barre syndrome

Campylobacter jejuni
HSV

69

This is usually the last function to recover in GBS

tendon reflexes

70

Usually the last symptom to resolve in GBS

Lower extremity weakness

71

CSF finding in GBS

Increased protein
Normal glucose
Normal cells

72

Most common site of medulloblastoma

Cerebellum

73

Homer Wright rosettes

Medulloblastoma

74

Most common infratentorial tumor and the best prognosis

Cerebellar astrocytoma

75

Supratentorial
Solid and cystic areas that tend to calcify
Short stature
Pressure to optic chiasm- visual defects

Craniopharyngioma

76

Most common cause of arterial ischemic stroke in children

Arteriopathy

77

Type of intracranial hemorrhage associated with trauma

Epidural

78

Type of intracranial hemorrhage associated with abusive trauma

Subdural

79

Most common cause of childhood subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic stroke

AV malformation