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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (228)
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1

Where does cauda equina start?

T12/L1

2

Is the cauda equina part of SNS or PNS?

PNS

3

Condition where posterior neuropore of neural tube fails to close?

Rachischisis

4

Does spina bifida have neurological deficits?

Yes! But no cognitive deficit

5

Causes of hydrocephalus?

Spina bifida, cerebral aqueduct stenosis

6

Types of spina bifida?

Occulta, meningocele (arachnoid only), myelomeningocele (arachnoid and neural tissue)

7

How can we detect neural tube defects prenatally?

Serum alpha fetoprotein

8

What is an arnold-chiari malformation?

Cerebellum sits in foramen magnum, hydrocephalus results. Type II chiari malformations due to myelomeningocele.

9

Why do we have a cauda equina?

Because after 3mo's the vertebral column grows faster than the cord

10

What do neural crest cells become?

Dorsal root ganglions, bones of face and skull, melanocytes, adrenal medulla, schwann cells

11

Why are neural crest cells so vulnerable to teratogens?

They have a very complex migratory pattern

12

Name two genetic diseases associated with neural crest cells?

Hirschprung's disease- nerves missing from GI so constipation
DiGeorge- problem in neural crest migration e.g. leading to abnormal facies, thyroid problems, cardiac defects

13

Where do somatic reflex arcs synapse?

ventral horn of spinal cord

14

What is the jendrassik maneouvre?

clench teeth and lock hands and pull, easier to elicit reflexes

15

What do you use gadolinium for?

Can reveal vascular tumours or meningiomas on MRIs because it doesn't cross the BBB normally and will reveal if the BBB has been breached

16

Name the three types of glia

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia

17

What do astrocytes do?

Provide lactate (neurons can't store glycogen so need lactate for citric acid cycle for ATP), re-uptake of neurotransmitters and to mop up K+

18

Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are from ____, microglia are from ____

astro and oligo from ectoderm, microglia from mesoderm

19

Name layers of the BBB

Lumen of capillary, basement membrane and endothelial cells surround it, then pericytes are around endothelial cells and can make capillaries contract, then foot processes of astrocytes

20

Can T cells enter the CNS?

Yes, but then something in the brain inhibits a pro-inflam response

21

What channel opens in neurons that triggers release of presynaptic neurotransmitter?

Calcium channels

22

Name inhibitory neurotransmitters of CNS

Glycine, GABA

23

Name mixed + and - neuroTs of CNS

NA, 5-HT, dopamine

24

Name activatory neuroTs of CNS

Glutamate, ACh

25

Name amino acid neuroTs

GABA, glycine, glutamate

26

Name biogenic amine neuroTs

ACh, NA, dopamine, 5-HT

27

Location of ACh neurons

Basic ace- nucleus basalis & septal neurones

28

Location of dopamine neurons

Nigrostriatal pathway, mesolimbic, mesocortical

29

Location of NA neurons

Locus coeruleus of pons
Medulla

30

Location of 5-HT neurons

Brainstem raphe nucleus