Flashcards in Neuro Deck (228)
Where does cauda equina start?
Is the cauda equina part of SNS or PNS?
Condition where posterior neuropore of neural tube fails to close?
Does spina bifida have neurological deficits?
Yes! But no cognitive deficit
Causes of hydrocephalus?
Spina bifida, cerebral aqueduct stenosis
Types of spina bifida?
Occulta, meningocele (arachnoid only), myelomeningocele (arachnoid and neural tissue)
How can we detect neural tube defects prenatally?
Serum alpha fetoprotein
What is an arnold-chiari malformation?
Cerebellum sits in foramen magnum, hydrocephalus results. Type II chiari malformations due to myelomeningocele.
Why do we have a cauda equina?
Because after 3mo's the vertebral column grows faster than the cord
What do neural crest cells become?
Dorsal root ganglions, bones of face and skull, melanocytes, adrenal medulla, schwann cells
Why are neural crest cells so vulnerable to teratogens?
They have a very complex migratory pattern
Name two genetic diseases associated with neural crest cells?
Hirschprung's disease- nerves missing from GI so constipation
DiGeorge- problem in neural crest migration e.g. leading to abnormal facies, thyroid problems, cardiac defects
Where do somatic reflex arcs synapse?
ventral horn of spinal cord
What is the jendrassik maneouvre?
clench teeth and lock hands and pull, easier to elicit reflexes
What do you use gadolinium for?
Can reveal vascular tumours or meningiomas on MRIs because it doesn't cross the BBB normally and will reveal if the BBB has been breached
Name the three types of glia
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia
What do astrocytes do?
Provide lactate (neurons can't store glycogen so need lactate for citric acid cycle for ATP), re-uptake of neurotransmitters and to mop up K+
Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are from ____, microglia are from ____
astro and oligo from ectoderm, microglia from mesoderm
Name layers of the BBB
Lumen of capillary, basement membrane and endothelial cells surround it, then pericytes are around endothelial cells and can make capillaries contract, then foot processes of astrocytes
Can T cells enter the CNS?
Yes, but then something in the brain inhibits a pro-inflam response
What channel opens in neurons that triggers release of presynaptic neurotransmitter?
Name inhibitory neurotransmitters of CNS
Name mixed + and - neuroTs of CNS
NA, 5-HT, dopamine
Name activatory neuroTs of CNS
Name amino acid neuroTs
GABA, glycine, glutamate
Name biogenic amine neuroTs
ACh, NA, dopamine, 5-HT
Location of ACh neurons
Basic ace- nucleus basalis & septal neurones
Location of dopamine neurons
Nigrostriatal pathway, mesolimbic, mesocortical
Location of NA neurons
Locus coeruleus of pons