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Flashcards in Repro Deck (149)
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State the layers of the testes

External spermatic fascia
Cremasteric fascia
Internal spermatic fascia
Tunica vaginalis
Tunica albuginea


How do the abdominal wall layers change as they go into the testes

Abdo: External abdo oblique, internal abdo oblique, transversus abdominus
Testes: External spermatic fascia, Cremasteric spermatic fascia, Internal spermatic fascia


Which blood vessels are in the penis

Superficial (outer layer) and deep (one layer in) dorsal veins, plus dorsal artery and cavernous artery (in the cavernosum)


Which nerve is in the penis

Dorsal nerve


Tell me about the contents and structure of the spermatic cord

3 fascial layers: ex sperm fas, cremasteric, int sperm fasc
3 arteries: cremasteric, testicular, artery to vas
3 veins: cremasteric, testicular, vein to vas
3 nerves: ilioinguinal, cremasteric, sympathetics


Tell me about the lymphatic drainage of testes vs scrotum

Testes drained by para-aortic (that's where they came from)
But scrotum via superficial inguinal


Tell me about the content of ejaculate

Prostate: 30%, enzymes to cut ejaculate clot and zinc for motility
Seminal vesicles: 60%, fructose for food
Bulbourethral glands: 10% alkaline and lube
5% sperm


Three zones of prostate and their locations

Central at the top and anterior, transitional in the middle and where BPH is, peripheral is inferior and posterior and what you feel on DRE where prostate cancer is


What are the 3 parts of the urethra and which is the narrowest and least distensible

Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra (narrowest and least distensible), spongy urethra


What are the 4 muscles in the root of the penIS

x2 ischiocavernosus
x2 bulbospongiosus


Fractured penis =

ruputured tunica albuginea


Describe the route of sperm

Out of seminiferous tubules, through epididymis, into vas deferens, joined by seminal vesicle stuff to make ejaculatory duct, join with prostatic urethra, joined by bulbourethral stuff in membranous urethra, then spongy urethra and out


Name scrotal swelling differentials

Hydrocoele, varicocele, spermatocele, epididymitis, inguinal hernia, testicular cancer, torsion, haematocoele, epididymal cysts


What's a varicocoele and what would make it more concerning?

Distension of paminiform plexus. More concerning if on the right because this has acute angle of entry to IVC so suggests IVC compression


Where is a hydrocoele

Excess fluid in tunica vaginalis


Describe the progression of an ovarian follicle

Primary follicle, secondary follicle (antral follicle), tertiary follicle (Graafian follicle), ruptured follicle, active corpus luteum, regressing corpus luteum, corpus albicans


What's the ovary covered by

Parietal peritoneum


What's cervical ectropion?

Around the cervical external os appears red and inflamed but its a normal response to oestrogen during a menstrual cycle where the cervix unfurls a bit and you see the columnar cells come out


Where's the commonest site for ectopic pregnancies and where does fertilisation normally occur

Ampulla for both- but once its fertilised it should move down to uterine cavity


What cells in the ampulla nourish the egg?

Peg cells!


Name uterine and ovarian ligaments

Broad ligament is big sheet of peritoneum over them all
Round ligament is remnant of gubernaculum and connects uterus to labia majora
Suspensory ligament connects ovaries to lateral wall
Ovarian ligaments connect ovary to uterus


What are the three components of the broad ligament

Mesovarium (supports ovary), mesosalpinx (supports ovary and uterine tube), mesometrium (supports inferior rest of it)


What are the parts of the uterine tube

Infundibulum (wide to catch eggs), ampulla (fertilisation and ectopic site), isthmus


On a microscope looking at the vagina, what would you see?

White gaps are glycogen to feed lactobacilli for low pH, cells are stratified squamous epi


What components make an indifferent gonad

Primordial germ cells and intermediate mesoderm


What is the cloaca

Caudal opening shared by GI, uro and genital, closed by cloacal membrane


Where does the uterus come from

The paramesonephric duct (which is part of urogenital ridge)


What controls formation of the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts?

Mullerian duct forms if no MIH is made by testis
Wolffian duct forms if androgens are made


What cells make MIH and androgens?

MIH made by sertoli cells
Androgens made by leydig cells


What makes the prostate?

Urogenital sinus