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Flashcards in Neuro and Intracranial Dynamics Deck (111)
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1

How does sensory info travel up the spinal cord?

Up through spinothalamic tracts through the brainstem and cerebellum to the cerebrum

2

How does motor info travel down the spinal cord?

Down through corticospinal tracts, through brainstem and cerebellum, down spinal cord to the effector organ

3

Where do the corticospinal tracts pass and what is the significance?

Cross at the level of the medulla, therefore movement on one side of the body is controlled by the other side of the brain.

4

What is decussation?

Cross over of descending motor tracts (corticospinal tracts) at the medulla

5

Which cranial nerves exit through the brainstem?

All except I and II

6

Do cranial nerves cross over?

No, so they are responsible for same side (ipsilateral) sensory and motor information

7

What is CN II responsible for and what occurs in deficits?

Vision

Deficits result in impaired visual fields

8

What is CN III responsible for and what occurs in deficits?

Raises eyelid, pupil constriction, eye movement

Deficits result in ptosis and pupil dilation

9

What is CN IX responsible for and what occurs in deficits?

Gag, swallowing, phonation

Deficits result in impaired gag and difficulty speaking

10

What is CN X responsible for and what occurs in deficits?

Swallowing

Deficits result in impaired swallowing and speech

11

What are the afferent / efferent portions of the pupil and corneal reflex?

Pupil:

CN II sees light
CN III constricts pupil

Corneal:

CN V detects stimulus
CN VII causes facial twitch

12

What is the weakest point of the skull and why is it vulnerable?

Pterion --> Junction of the skull bones

13

What are the divisions of the skull base?

Anterior, middle, posterior fossa

14

What are the 3 main areas of the brain?

1) Cerebrum
2) Cerebellum
3) Brainstem

15

What are elements of the cerebrum?

2 central hemispheres composed of pairs of:

1) Frontal lobe
2) Parietal lobe
3) Temporal lobe
4) Occipital lobe

Central hemispheres communicate through corpus collosum

16

What is the frontal lobe responsible for?

Contains motor cortex
High level cognitive functioning, concentration, judgment, memory, emotion, personality.

Contains Broca's area responsible for motor speech

17

What happens with frontal lobe deficits?

Contralateral motor impairment, behaviour and personality changes, impaired speech

18

What is the parietal lobe responsible for?

Contains sensory cortex
Interpret sensations, proprioception

19

What happens with parietal lobe deficits?

Sensation deficits, left and right confusion, neglect syndromes

20

What is the temporal lobe responsible for?

Auditory lobe
Integration of auditory and visual areas, contains Wernike's area responsible for understanding of speech.
Visual, auditory, olfactory perception, learning, memory

21

What happens with temporal lobe deficits?

Receptive aphasia if Wernike's area is damaged

22

What is the occipital lobe responsible for?

Visual perception, visual reflexes, smooth eye movements

23

What is the cerebellum?

Located in posterior fossa, controls fine movement and coordination of muscle groups, maintaining balance

24

What happens with cerebellar deficits?

Gait disturbances, ataxia, dysmetria (lack of coordination)

25

What is the reticular activating system (RAS)?

Group of nuclei throughout the brainstem, moderates wakefulness and consciousness.

Disturbances in RAS result in altered LOC, fibers fan out to all aspects of the cerebrum

26

What are the 3 main subdivisions of the brainstem?

1) Midbrain
2) Pons
3) Medulla

27

What is the midbrain responsible for?

Motor function, relay system between cerebral hemispheres, subcortical structures, cerebellum, and spinal cord

28

What is the pons responsible for?

Respiratory patterns, controlling rate

29

What is the medulla responsible for?

Extends through foramen magnum and becomes spinal cord.
Site of decussation, controls respiration, vomiting, hiccupping, vasomotor function affecting blood pressure

30

What happens with brain stem deficits?

Decreased LOC due to RAS
Pupil changes due to CN III sitting on top of midbrain
Motor, sensory impairments
Vital signs changes including RR