Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Review Deck (58):
What are the two PNS divisions
____ is innervation distributed to structures in the body wall for voluntary control of body movements
____ is innervation distributed to visceral structures in body wall and cavity for involuntary control of body functions and includes smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
____ matter is CNS tissue that contains neuronal cell bodies and dendrites
____ matter is CNS tissue that is largely composed of myelinated axons
Nucleus is circumscribed region of ___ matter, usually named by its location or function.
Ganglion is a collection of neuronal cell bodies in the ____
_____ is a bundle of axons
Another word for cerebrum (frontal lobe) is ____
The cerebellum coordinates movement and balance is joined to each part of the brainstem: the midbrain (mesencephalon), ______, and _____
what is composed of diencephalon?
thalamus and hypothalamus; relays sensory information between brain regions. Controls hunger, thirst, sleep, and sexual response.
What is the cerebrum (frontal lobe) responsible for?
movement, personality, behavior, emotion, judgement, intelligence, language (Broca's area), and FEF
What is the parietal lobe of the cerebrum responsible for?
touch, temperature, pain, interpretation of visual and spatial info, and language. Connects somatosensory, auditory, and visual input.
what is the temporal lobe of the cerebrum responsible for?
Understanding language, hearing, and memory.
What are the major parts of the diencephalon
1: pineal gland: secretes melatonin.
2. thalamus: processes and relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.
3. hypothalamus: controls the pituitary gland.
which part of the brain contains 50% of the total number of neurons
which part of the brain provides pathway for tracts running between higher and lower neural centers, controls involuntary reflexes necessary for crucial life functions and contains nuclei for CN III- XII
the midbrain forms floor of the ______ ventricle and is point of exit of CN III and IV.
the tectum is the roof of the aqueduct which is comprised of gray matter. It includes the _____ and ____ colliculus
The ____ colliculi control reflex movements of the eye, head, and neck in response to visual stimuli.
The inferior colliculi control reflex movements of the head, neck, and trunk in response to _____ stimuli
The pons contains sensory and motor nuclei for CN ____ through ____. (All the ones with V). It contains respiratory nuclei to maintain respiratory rhythm.
The medulla oblongata is where ____ fibers cross. It contains autonomic nuclei for cardiac contractions and receives respiratory rhythm input from pons. Anything below the medulla, you get ____ paresis.
Which cranial nerves exit at the level of medulla?
IX - XII
All the ones with X)
The ____ _____artery supplies blood to most of the cerebrum.
the _____ arteries supply the brainstem, cerebellum, and posterior cerebrum
what supplies the entire brainstem
circle of willis --> makes up the vertebral and internal carotid arteries
What makes up the vertebral arteries
Basilar and Posterior cerebral arteries
what makes up the internal carotid arteries
1. anterior cerebral
2. anterior communicating artery
3. middle cerebral
4. posterior communicating artery
CN III is adjacent to which artery? which is the most common nerve palsy?
Posterior Communicating Artery.
CN III is the most common nerve palsy
An aneurysm at which artery can cause compression of the optic nerve?
anterior cerebral artery
What is the pathway of the sympathetic NS
1. Starts in hypothalamus
2. synapse in Superior Colliculus
3. Travel around apex of lungs
4. Synapse in superior cervical ganglion.
5. Peri- arterial plexus along ICA and ECA
what is the pathway of the parasympathetic NS
1. Preganglionics originate in CN III, VII, IX, and X
2. Synapse on 4 cranial PS ganglia or directly on target glands.
3. Post ganglionics distributed via branches of CN V.
What is the sympathetic system responsible for
4. thickening of saliva
5. pupil dilation
6. normal eyelid position
what is the parasympathetic system responsible for?
3. mucus secretion
5. pupil constriction
where do preganglionic parasympathetics from CN 3 synapse.
which ganglion is where we get preganglionics from our fascial nerve
what are the 12 cranial nerves
2. optic nerve
11. spinal accessory
the olfactory nerve has special ______ fibers only and exits the cranium via the ____ ____
affarent; cribiform plate
The optic nerve also has special affarent fibers only. It exits via the ___ ___. Nasal retinal fibers cross at the optic chasm.
CN III exits via the ____ ____ ___ and has somatic and parasympathetic stimuli. The somatic component supplies 5 muscles, the visceral component goes to the iris sphincter for meiosis and ciliary muscle for accommodation.
superior orbital fissure.
EW nucleus fire and synapse in the _____ ganglion. Intraorbital lesions usually only affect the ____ division.
trochlear nerve innervates the ____ ____ muscle, is the only CN to cross over, originates in the dorsal aspect of the midbrain and exits via superior orbital fissure and is _______ _____ only
superior oblique; general efferent only
CN V is mainly sensory but has some general somatic efferent fibers for muscles of ______ and _____ _____. It suspends ____ parasympathetic ganglia .
mastication; tensor tympani; 4
the ophthalmic division exits via ____ ___ ____. the mandibular exits via _____ ____ and the mandibular exits via the ____ ____
superior orbital fissure; foramen rotundum; foramen ovale
what are the 4 parasympathetic ganglia that the trigeminal nerve suspends
1. ciliary ganglion: to smooth muscles of eye.
2. pterygopalatine ganglion: to lacrimal gland.
3. otic ganglion: to parotid gland.
4. submandibular: to submandibular and sublingual glands.
What are the hitchhiking fibers that CN V carries
1. SVA: taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue and palate
2. Sympathetics from internal carotid artery plexus
CN VI (abducens) exits brainstem at junction of _____ and medulla and has general efferent function only.
What are the GE functions of the fascial nerve
muscles of fascial expression
1. stapedius: dampens vibration of stapes
2. posterior belly of digastric: opens jaw
3. stylohyoid: assists in chewing
what are VE functions of the fascial nerve
1. lacrimal gland
2. mucus glands of nasal vanity and palate
3. submandibular and sublingual glands
what are SA functions of the facial nerve
1. taste from anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
2. taste from soft palate
which nerve has the longest intraosseous course
which nerve goes to the lacrimal gland
T/F CN VIII (vestibulocochlear) does not leave skull and has special affrarent fibers only.
CN IX (glossopharyngeal) leaves brainstem from lateral aspect of upper medulla and exits cranial cavity via _____ ______. Its VE function is to the parotid gland. Its VA function is the carotid body and sinus to monitor _____ pressure and heart rate. Its GA function is to the posterior 1/3 of tongue, tonsils, oropharynx, and mastoid air cells. Lesion causes loss of gag reflex on affected side.
jugular foramen; blood
CN X (vagus) leaves brainstem lateral to CN IX in the upper medulla and leaves cranial cavity via jugular foramen. GE function is to muscles of _____, pharynx, and _____. IT supplies VE for heart rate, sweating, GI peristalsis and speech.
CN XI (spinal accessory) innervates ______ and sternocleidomastoid muscles for shoulder and neck movement. It enters skull via foramen magnum and exits skull via ______ formaen