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Flashcards in Headache 2 Deck (28):

What are some causes of secondary headache disorders

1. trauma/injury to the head/neck
2. cranial/cervical vascular disorders (blood vessels)
3. non vascular intracranial disorders (intracranial masses)
4. substance abuse/withdrawal
5. disorder of eyes (uveitis), sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial/cranial structures (TMJ).


Secondary headache occurs in association with a definable abnormality:

1. structural
2. vascular
3. toxic
4. inflammatory
5. infectious
-may mimic a primary headache disorder. Requires prompt work up.


Headache caused by trauma is one of the most common causes of secondary headache. Presents within ____ months of injury and can persist. Usually resembles tension or migraine headaches. It is never due to intracranial bleed from trauma



What are some additional symptoms of headaches that are caused by trauma to head/neck

1. dizziness
2. fatigue
3. reduced ability to concentrate
4. mild memory problems
5. insomnia
6. irritabilty


What is the pathogenesis of headaches caused by trauma?

unclear, may be due to:
1. axonal injury
2. alteration in cerebral metabolism
3. psychopathology: patient expectation of dev headache after injury
4. malingering: uncommon cause


how do you manage headache caused by trauma

1. neuroimaging to rule out structural abnormality
-carotid artery dissection: med ER
-intracranial hematoma: med ER


What is an optometrists role in managing headaches due to trauma

1. rule out ocular sequelae of trauma (retinal tear, RD, etc)
2. refer to neurology for management


What types of disorders cause headaches due to cranial/cervical vascular disorders

1. ischemic stroke
2. hemorrhagic stroke
3. arterio-venous malformation
4. cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
5. arterial dissection
6. giant cell arteritis


Headache in ischemic stroke is a self limited course. Dev's in close temporal relation to other symptoms and signs of ischemic stroke. Neurologic symptoms predominate:

1. loss of consciousness
2. motor weakness
3. altered mental status


Headache in hemorrhagic stroke is usually due to _____hemorrhage. it involves an abrupt and severe thunderclap headache. mortality is 40-50%. 50% of survivors are left disabled. Requires STAT non contrast CT: neuro surgical ER to identify site of ruptured aneurysm, and repair aneurysm.



______space is not a real space but it can fill with blood. acute but not as severe as subarachnoid hemorrhage. in elderly its usually associated with history of falling. may lead to permanent neurologic deficits if left untreated. Occurs as a tear of a bridging veiln.



Headache secondary to arteriovenous malformation may present as ____ HA, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, or migraine. Other features present include seizure disorder, and focal neurologic deficits. Requires neuroimaging to diagnose.



How do you differentiate headaches secondary to arteriorvenous malformation from primary HA disorders?

1. abrupt onset
2. falls out of patient demographic for particular primary HA
3. associated neurologic symptoms
4. associated retinal findings.


Headache is the most common symptom of ____ sinus thrombosis. associated with other signs of elevated ICP. Requires MRI and ____ for diagnosis. Treatment requires ____ followed by 6+ month course of oral anticoagulation

venous; MRV; heparin


Headache secondary to artery dissection is sudden and severe, ipsilateral to artery dissection. HA is usually persistent and can last up to 4 days in duration. If suspected requires, STAT MRI and ____ of head and neck and prompt surgical intervention. If cervical arteries involved, may present with ______

MRA; horners


Headache secondary to GCA includes inflammation of your cervical, cranial, or brain arteries. Other symptoms usually present include:

1. jaw claudication
2. polymyalgia rheumatica; muscle pain and stiffness
3. fever
4. anorexia
5. amarosis fugax


Headache secondary to GCA includes:

1. STAT IV steroids if optic nerve is involved.
2. ESR, CRP, platelets
3. Temporal artery biopsy


Non vascular intracranial causes of HA include:

1. intracranial mass
2. intracranilal pressure alteraions: elevated or decreased ICP
3. intracranial infections: meningitis


intracranial mass usually doesn't present with headaches. Usually ____ signs will predominate.



Increase ICP will present with papilledema, transient vision loss and ____ palsy. Manage these patients with MRI, _____ and treat underlying disorder

CN VI; lumbar puncture


what can DECREASED ICP cause

ICP below 90 mmH20, usually due after LP, epidural, or shunting due to persistent CSF leak. Usually occurs 48 hours after procedure, but may be delayed up to 14 days. worsens with standing, improves on laying down.


what are associated symptoms of decreased ICP

1. nausea/vomiting
2. tinnitus
3. photophobia
4. diplopia: bilateral CN VI palsy due to traction from the brain as it sinks down
5. management: stop CSF leak


______ is pain accompanied by photophobia, stiff neck and fever. Etiology is usually _____, inflammatory, or neoplastic. If bacterial its very aggressive and can cause rapid deterioration if not treated promptly. IT viral it is usually self resolving. Neoplastic is usually due to history of prior cancer treatment.

Meningitis; infectious


main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck. what are additional symptoms?

1. pain in back, muscles or neck
2. chills, lethargy, loss of appetite
3. nausea or vomiting
4. mental confusion
5. sluggish
6. elevated heart rate


Postherpetic neuralgia occurs days to months after acute ____ dermatitis. It presents with constant burning mixed with sharp stabs that may be triggered by light touch. More frequent in elderly, diabetic or immunocompromised patients. Difficult to treat and may subside within ___ years. Best treatment is prompt oral antivirals and corticosteroids during acute HZV attack



Jaw origin of head pain is usually due to dental pain, exacerbated by chewing/hot/cold temps. You can also get it from ____ pain which is exacerbated by jaw movement, a clicking sound is often heard.



Paranasal sinus disease usually presents with headaches thats worse in the morning and is accompanied by _____. Requires CT scan of head and orbits for diagnosis. If you transilluminate the sinuses, and they're clear they should light up, if theres a sinusitis it doesn't light up



what are ocular causes of head pain

1. corneal disease: dryness inflammation abrasion. may be associated with collagen vascular disorders.

2. inflammatory disease:
uveitis, scleritis, episcleritis, optic neuritis

3. elevated IOP: sudden elevation in IOP; acute angle closure, Possner Schlossmsan syndrome (acute elevation of IOP)

4. uncorrected RE

5. ischemia: ocular ischemic syndrome; significant ICA stenosis, dull pain

6. Accommodative spasm: excessive accusation leads to ciliary muscle cramps. typically binocular and is associated with near work. distance vision blur is a common symptom

7. binocular dysfunction: DI, DE, CI, CE

8. Orbital disease: proptosis, vascular congestion