Neurobiology Of Appetite Flashcards Preview

Advanced Nutrition > Neurobiology Of Appetite > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurobiology Of Appetite Deck (95):
1

How m any pounds do we gain/year

1-2 pounds

2

Timeline for energy expenditure vs intake

Continuous vs episodic

3

2 systems that regulate appetite and food intake

Homeostatic (metabolic)
Hedonic (reward system)

4

What are the two adiposity related (long term) signals for satiety?

Insulin and lepton

5

What are the 2 nutrient related signals that stimulate satiety?

Glucose and FFAs

6

What are 2 short term satiety signals that travel through the vagus nerve and spinal nerves

CCK and GLP1

7

Function of the homeostatic regulatory system
How does it achieve that? (2)

Senses the nutritional and metabolic state of the body to prevent weight loss and maintain fat stores by balancing energy intake with energy expenditure over time - regulates the body’s set point
- stimulates hunger when energy levels are low
- suppresses appetite when energy levels are sufficient

8

How does the homeostatic system accommodate for growth?

The set point for the amount of energy that you body needs increases as you age and does not seem to stop.

9

Key areas of the brain involved in homeostatic appetite regulation

Hypothalamus
Dorsal vagal complex (brain stem)

10

Two parts of the hypothalamus

Accurate nucleus and median eminence

11

Two types of neurons in the arcuate nucleus and what they do

NPY/AgRP neurons - stimulate appetite
- neuropeptide Y
- Agouti related peptide

POMC/CART neurons - suppress appetite
- pro-opiomelanocortin
Cocaine and amphetamine- regulated transcript

12

What is the median eminence?

Incomplete blood brain Barrie that samples circulating satiety hormones

13

What does the dorsal vagal complex contain? (2)

Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius
- receives input from vagal nerve (afferent nerve impulses)
Area postrema
- incomplete blood brain Barrier that samples circulated satiety hormones

14

Where does the dorsal vagal complex relay signals?

Hypothalamus

15

What is the short term orexigenic (hunger) hormone? And where is it from?

Ghrelin - released from stomach

16

What are the four short term anorexigenic (satiety) hormones and where are they from?

Peptide YY (PYY) - L cells (ileum and colon)
Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) - pancreatic islets of Langerhans - PP cells
Glucagon-like peptide - 1 (GLP-1) - co-secreted with PYY from L-cells (ileum and colon)
CHolecystokinin (CCK) - I-cells (proximal small intestine)

17

Satiety

Physical feeling of fullness

18

Satiation

End of desire to eat after a meal

19

What neurons would hunger hormones stimulate?

NPY/AgRP

20

What neurons would satiety stimulate?

POMC and CART

21

Where are L cells located?

Distal ileum and colon

22

What is lepton released in proportion to?

Adipose tissue mass

23

Where is insulin released?

Beta cells in the pancreas

24

What are the two long term anorexigenic hormones?

Lepton and insulin

25

Functions of lepton and insulin (2)

Activate POMC/CART neurons and reciprocally inhibit NPY/AgRP neurons

26

What struggle does the lepton deficiency disorder face?

Lepton deficiency obesity is not very popular, but they have trouble controlling their appetite

27

What is the hedonic regulation

Reward system - brain mechanism that promotes behaviour that are beneficial for survival and procreation

28

What does hedonic regulation lead to? By doing what? (2)

Food intake above and beyond homeostatic control/homeostatic override
- conditioning - neutral cues gain incentive such as sight, small and taste
- unconsciously guide executive decision making

29

Two components of hedonic regulation

Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
Endocannabinoid and opioid receptors

30

5 things under the control of your hedonic regulation

Money, salt, sugar, fat, sex

31

What does hedonic regulation exploit?

Opportunities of abundance - we used to compete for food with other species - so we would consume as much as we can when we get the chance to

32

Conditioning of hedonic regulation?

Dopamine is released when certain things are consumed

33

Munchies from marijuana goes through what pathway

Encocannabinoid pathway of hedonic regulation

34

What does hedonic regulation have a heightened response to?

Highly palatable and calorically dense foods
- fat, sugar, salt

35

Interactions between homeostatic and hedonic systems

Homeostatic hunger enhances food reward - elevated ghrelin and reduced lepton, insulin, and other satiety hormones alter signaling in the reward system of the brain. (After fasting sweetened foods did not get a big drop in dislike)

36

Other than hedonic and homeostatic regulation, what’s the last regulation that decides to eat or not to eat?

Cognitive regulation

37

What are three cognitive aspects of food intake?

Self regulation/dieting, social feedback, environmental feedback

38

How many decisions do we make about when where what with whom and how much to eat everyday?

230, underestimated by 215 decisions

39

How does marketing tailor to biology and hard wired innate food preferences?

Finding the bliss point to elicit physiological responses that are normal and realistic

40

Digital images of highly palatable food may

Adversely affect our appetite-regulating neural signalling

41

3 factors in food that promote satiety?

Fibre, protein, water content

42

2 effects of dietary fibre on appetite

Subjective appetite reduced by ~5%
Reduced energy intake but ~2.6%

43

Paleo diet may

Enhance satiety

44

Hedonic system promotes consumption of palatable, energy dense food in the absence of?

Physiological hunger

45

When does the homeostatic and hedonic system interact to promote food intake?

Periods of energy insufficiency

46

In normal subjects, their body weight is tightly regulated despite

Day to day variation in food intake and energy expenditure

47

What does the body system favour in terms of energy?

Preservation of energy because it has evolved to conserve energy

48

What do energy signals do? And where does it converge?

Relay info such as the nutritional and energy status of the body and it converges within the CNS

49

What two factors in humans that can drive excess food intake?

Psychological and emotional factors

50

Two things in the modern lifestyle that makes obesity easy

Easily available palatable foods and reduced levels of PA

51

What can result in obesity in rare cases?

Mutations within genes encoding known appetite regulating hormones

52

What plays a major role in the control of appetite?

Hypothalamus

53

What allow peripheral circulating factors direct access to the CNS?

Incomplete blood brain barrier at the median eminence of the hypothalamus and area postrema of the brain stem

54

What hormone is produced in POMC neurons and what do they bind to?

Alpha-melanocyte- stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and it binds to melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors in the PVN (paraventricular nucleus)

55

How is the orexigenic effect of NPY mediated?

By stimulation of hypothalamic Y1R and Y5R in addition to local inhibition of POMC neurons in the ARC

56

Two ways peripheral signals can convert information

Neural pathways via the brain stem and hypothalamus
Incomplete blood brain barrier at the median eminence and rare postrema - gut hormones and adiposity signals can act via the bloodstream to influence signaling of known appetite controlling pathways like NPY ArRP and POMC/CART in the arcuate nucleus.

57

Signals from higher cortical centres are integrated with?

Peripheral finals within hypothalamic nuclei

58

3 parts of the dorsal vagal complex

Dorsal motor nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the tractus solitarius

59

What does the vagal come from and what does it do?

Afferent from the gut to convey info such as gastric distension, gut hormone levels and fatty acids

60

Periphery signals have pivotal roles in what?

Transmitting info via afferent vagal fibres to the caudal brainstem or directly to the hypothalamus to modify appetite

61

Corticolimbic pathways

Reward associated feeding behaviour with the endocannabinoid and opioid receptors

62

Rimonabant

Endocannabinoid receptor antagonist - used for a treatment for obesity but has unacceptable psuchiatric side-effects resulting in withdrawal of the drug

63

What’s referred to as the largest endocrine organ in the body?

Gastrointestinal tract

64

PYY - what is it? How many forms, where is it released?

Peptide tyrosine tyrosine - two circulating forms of it released by L cells in the distal gut

65

Circulating PYY concentration

Low in the fasted state and rapidly increases following a meal - peak at 1-2 hours and remain elevated for several hours

66

2 effects of PYY

Anorectic, increases energy expenditure

67

How does PYY have anorectic effects?

Incomplete blood brain barrier in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, via vagal brainstem hypothalamic pathways, or both.

68

PP concentration

Circulating PP concentration rise after a meal in proportion to the caloric load

69

GLP- 1
Where is it secreted?

Glucagon-like peptide-1
Consecrated with PYY from the L cells in the intestine

70

Circulating GLP-1 levels

Rise after a meal and fall in the fasted state

71

What does GLP-1 do?

Reduce food intake

72

Intravenous infusion of GLP-1

Does dependent reduction in food intake in both normal weight and obese subjects

73

Circulating ghrelin

Increase before meals and fall rapidly after eating

74

Peripheral administration of ghrelin

Increase c-fos expression in ARC NPY/AgRP neurons

75

First hormone known to modulate food intake and its plasma half life

CHolecystokinin - few minutes

76

CCK levels

Rapidly reaches a peak within 15 minutes after a meal

77

Adiposity signals are involved in

Long-term regulation of energy balance

78

What modulates food intake on a meal by meal basis?

Gut peptides

79

Circulating levels of insulin and lepton and what is it responsible for?

Proportional to adipose tissue - long term regulation of energy balance

80

Insulin concentration

Secreted rapidly after a meal

81

Central administration of insulin

Suppresses the fasting induced increase in NPY mRNA levels and increases POMC mRNA expression

82

Where is leptin secreted?

Adipocytes

83

How does leptin work?

Transported across the BBB by a saturable system and exerts anorectic effect via the ARC - both NPY/AgRP and POMC/CART neurons express leptin receptors but the first one is inhibited and the second is activated to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure

84

Given the enormous amount of food eaten, it is remarkable that we

Keep a stable body weight throughout adulthood

85

Besides the hypothalamus, what other brain areas are in the circuitry of the homeostatic regulator?- 3

Brainstem, basal ganglia, cortico-limbic system

86

Advertisement in food industry

Use food and pictures of food to neuromarket - esp children because it generates future buyers of brand name products

87

Does stimuli from the environment have the capacity to overwhelm homeostatic regulation?

Yes, temporarily

88

When are conditioned cues such as food advertisements more likely to stimulate overingestion?

Metabolic depletion - shortly before or during a meal because it amplifies their incentive salience, metabolic hunger makes us more responsive to cues signalling food and drug reward

89

What kind of signals does metabolic depletion send?

High levels of ghrelin, low levels of leptin, insulin, gut hormones and various metabolites that can act on the hypothalamus and brainstem and also brain areas involved in sensory processing, cognition, and reward.

90

Even in the absence of food advertisements, we are finding ourselves more and more ...

Exposed to opportunities to eat - from a fixed meal pattern availability of food has increased everywhere - birthday cakes and vending machines at work and school, increasing number of fast food places, ready to eat food at refrigerator.

91

French paradox

Consumption of highly palatable French/Mediterranean cuisine produces less risk for obesity - factors other than palatability that lead to chronic overconsumption

92

What kinds of foods are addictive?

Energy dense foods that are high in sugar and fat and low in vitamins and minerals - empty energies

93

Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens appears to play a role in?

Both the appetitive and consumatory phases of an ingestive bout

94

Is the decision to eat a food item up to the free will of every individual?

Conscious decisions may have a subconscious component - subconscious neural activity can guide ingestive behaviour before conscious explicit knowledge does

95

How does environmental signals affect food intake?

Interact with corticolimbic brain areas involved in cognition, emotion, motivation and decision making - bottom up by metabolic signals and can exert strong and overpowering top down control of food intake and energy balance regulation e.g. eating in complete absence of nutritional need.