Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Lecture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Lecture Deck (60):
1

Chronic non-communicable diseases

slow developing, long-lasting diseases that are not contagious. They can be treated but not always cured.

2

BMI ratings

<18.5 at risk
18.5-24.9 healthy
25-29.9 overweight
>30 obesity

3

Obese ind have an increased risk for 11 chronic diseases

cardiovascular diabetes
type 2 diabetes
hypertension (>130)
stroke
osteoarthritis
heart attack
cancer - liver, breast, colorectal, endometrial, gallbladder
pulmonary disease
erectile dysfunction and gynecological abnormalities
sleep apnea
ability to get pregnant decreases

4

How does metabolic disease precipitate liver cancer

non-alcoholic fatty liver disease identical to alcoholic. Scar tissue begins to form when the liver is in an inflammatory state - otherwise benign - risk factor for development of liver failure and cancer

5

Adipose -Based Chronic Disease

New theory proposed - less stigmatization and classifying ind as obese

6

metabolic syndrome 2

associated with risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
pre cursore to diabetes and development of cardiovascular disease - prediabetic, lifestyle habits can be changed to prevent attaining these chronic diseases

7

How physicians diagnose metabolic syndrome

3/5 of the following
increased waist circumference
- male cut off = 40 inches (102cm)
- female cut off = 35 inches (88cm)
High BP = >130/85mmHg - systolic more important
impaired fasting glucose >5.6mmol after 8 hours of fasting (in the morning) - hyperglycemic
lipid parameters
- HDL - whether the individual is below the threshold for healthy cholesterol - <1.0mmol HDL males; <1.3 mmol HDL females
increase in triacylglycerol in the blood (>1.7mmol/L)

8

US age 40-69 in 1890 vs 2000

1890 - 3/4% obesity across
2000 - 25-40% of obesity moves up from 40-69

9

obesity trends among Canadians in 1985, 1998, and 2011

increased substantially
1985 <10%
1998 >15% in Canada except bc and Quebec
2011 25-29% most provinces more in territories 2/3 population, BMI>25, 1/4 population obese

10

Leading cause of death 2+@

CVD and cancer, diabetes, cerebrovascular

11

What does high BMI correlate with? (2)

Higher relative risk of CVD, diabetes

12

What province has the lowest BMI?

BC

13

Does obesity happen in developing cuntries?

Yes - malnourished and overnourished

14

Abdominal obesity in Canadian adults and children

doubled and 3 - fold

15

What is responsible for the increase in obesity in children?

intergenerational obesity
intergenerational risk - women that is pregnant and gains more weight than what is recommended during pregnancy, child will have an increased risk of being obeses later in life due to epigenetic factors on the developing child - blamed used to be female only but males also count

16

type 2 diabetes and death

80% of people dont but they make you predisposed to CV diseases like heart attacks and stroke

17

Association between BMI and type 2

strong - pos relationship

18

How has diet changed? (6)

Increased processed foods
total dietary fats has decreased from 40-30%
increased meat consumption
increased refined carbs
decrease in dietary fibre
increased kcals/day -240

19

risk factors

a condition or behaviour associated with an increased frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal - persist over time, cluster

20

How many lbs of sugar does the avg Canadian consume/year

151lbs - high fructose corn syrup has increased

21

sugar industry and coronary heart disease research

From harvard was anti-fat pushing the idea tht ind should be consuming more sugar and carbs

22

fructose is cleared by

liver via portal vein

23

storage of glucose

glycogen but rate limiting by ATP citrate - prevents glucose from entering the mitochondria - instead of glycogen turns into fructose then acetyl co-A then fatty acids

24

lipogenesis

FA in mitochondria increased by fructose

25

ectopic fat

fat stored in liver where its not supposed to be incraseing risks for chronic disease and specifically type 2 diabetes

26

where does fructose come from?

all sugar sources, honey, table sugar

27

sat fat vs CVD risk

3 studies that says it doesnt
three that says it doesnt, 1 does

28

Sat fat increases CVD risk, so we should?

Move toward vegetable oils, but they were unstable so they used hydrogrenation to increase shelf life

29

Trans fat

Worse because it decreases HDL and increases LDL

30

Lower sat fat replaced with increased unsat fat intake will

Increase LDL and reduces the CVD risk

31

Why are sat fats and trans fats bad for you

Very stable - atherscelerosis

32

Food guide and sat fat

Bad, unsat fat will decreases CVD and LDL

33

Doctors and sat fat

Shouldn’t ban it, should be a cap but could lead o iron deficiency esp in females

34

Heart and Stroke and sat fat

pro- even when it increases LDL, but would like to see a wholesome diet

35

consumption of 100g red meat/day

no increased risk of CVD

36

Processed meat and carcinogenic risk

Group 1 - carcinogenic and great risk of CVD/chronic disease - hotdogs, ham, bacon, cold cuts, sausage

37

unprocessed meat and carcinogenic risk

Group 2A - probable carcinogen risk, not sure of mechanism - fresh red meat, beef and lamb,, ground meats, pork (similar nutrionally to beef)

38

No red meat = risk of

iron deficiency anemia

39

Controversy regarding consumption of unsat fat from England

increase in omega 6 my be linked to increased oxidation in the body

40

whats more important in a diet

quality instead of one nutrient/sat fat intake alone

41

What kind of cancer is eating processed meat associated to?

Colorectal cancer

42

Doses red meat increase CVD risk?

Not necessarily, but increased risk with other cancers that are not conclusive.

43

5 Canadian perceptions about a healthy diet contains the following

Fruits and veggies
Good source of protein - usually meat
Low in
- salt, refined carbs (sugar, white flour)
Qualities
- fresh, unprocessed, homemade
Balance, variety’s moderation

44

McFarthest spot

Farthest spot b/w McDonald’s in US - two tiny hamlets in South Dakota of 107 miles

45

How do food manufacturers exploit the system?

Say healthy but.. they are chocolate bars

46

Nova food classification system

Gp1: unprocessed/minimally processed - one or two steps - fresh dried/frozen veggies, grains, legumes, fruits, meats, fish, eggs, milk
2: processed culinary ingredients - sugars, fats, oils, salt
3: processed foods - 2/3 ingredients - breads, cheese, canned plant, animal foods
4: ultra-processed foods and drink - 5/6 ingredients esp additives - fast food, sugary drinks, snacks, chips, candies, cookies, sweetened cereals, sauces and dressings

47

2004 Canadian Community Health Survey data using NOVA classification system -%s

47.7% kcal from gp4, 39.2 gp1, 6.1 gp2, 7 gp 3

48

Ultra processed food associated with?

Reduced protein, fibre, potassium, calcium
Increased free sugar, total fat, sodium and energy density
- over the past 80 years Canadians replaced group 1 with gp 4

49

A ultra processed diet is linked to

Increased risk in obesity

50

New food guide - golden rule and 4 recommendations

Always natural/minimally processed foods, freshly made dishes not ultra processed foods
1. Make natural/minimally processed foods the basis of your diet
2. Oils, fat,s salt, sugar in small amounts
3. Limit processed foods - as ingredients or parts of meal
4. Avoid ultra processed foods

51

Who has the best food guide world wide?

Brazil

52

When will the new food guide labels on food items come out?

2021 - grouping of sugars - warning of high in sugar, fat and sodium

53

Are all processed foods bad?

No because you can avoid food borne illnesses - cleaner food and safer supplies

54

Paleolithic diets with the kitava study

Low chronic disease risk and prevalence

55

Paleolithic diet with South American tsimane study

Lower atherosclerosis markers
Decreased CVD risk

56

How much chronic disease can be eliminated from what we know?

80%

57

What’s good high fat?

Nuts/avocado

58

What’s good low fat

Fruits and veggies

59

How many calories right now come from processed foods?

48%

60

What’s one of the top risk factors for obesity and chronic disease?

Unhealthy diet high in sugar, refined carbs, sodium, and sat fat?