Flashcards in Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Lecture Deck (60):
Chronic non-communicable diseases
slow developing, long-lasting diseases that are not contagious. They can be treated but not always cured.
<18.5 at risk
Obese ind have an increased risk for 11 chronic diseases
type 2 diabetes
cancer - liver, breast, colorectal, endometrial, gallbladder
erectile dysfunction and gynecological abnormalities
ability to get pregnant decreases
How does metabolic disease precipitate liver cancer
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease identical to alcoholic. Scar tissue begins to form when the liver is in an inflammatory state - otherwise benign - risk factor for development of liver failure and cancer
Adipose -Based Chronic Disease
New theory proposed - less stigmatization and classifying ind as obese
metabolic syndrome 2
associated with risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
pre cursore to diabetes and development of cardiovascular disease - prediabetic, lifestyle habits can be changed to prevent attaining these chronic diseases
How physicians diagnose metabolic syndrome
3/5 of the following
increased waist circumference
- male cut off = 40 inches (102cm)
- female cut off = 35 inches (88cm)
High BP = >130/85mmHg - systolic more important
impaired fasting glucose >5.6mmol after 8 hours of fasting (in the morning) - hyperglycemic
- HDL - whether the individual is below the threshold for healthy cholesterol - <1.0mmol HDL males; <1.3 mmol HDL females
increase in triacylglycerol in the blood (>1.7mmol/L)
US age 40-69 in 1890 vs 2000
1890 - 3/4% obesity across
2000 - 25-40% of obesity moves up from 40-69
obesity trends among Canadians in 1985, 1998, and 2011
1998 >15% in Canada except bc and Quebec
2011 25-29% most provinces more in territories 2/3 population, BMI>25, 1/4 population obese
Leading cause of death 2+@
CVD and cancer, diabetes, cerebrovascular
What does high BMI correlate with? (2)
Higher relative risk of CVD, diabetes
What province has the lowest BMI?
Does obesity happen in developing cuntries?
Yes - malnourished and overnourished
Abdominal obesity in Canadian adults and children
doubled and 3 - fold
What is responsible for the increase in obesity in children?
intergenerational risk - women that is pregnant and gains more weight than what is recommended during pregnancy, child will have an increased risk of being obeses later in life due to epigenetic factors on the developing child - blamed used to be female only but males also count
type 2 diabetes and death
80% of people dont but they make you predisposed to CV diseases like heart attacks and stroke
Association between BMI and type 2
strong - pos relationship
How has diet changed? (6)
Increased processed foods
total dietary fats has decreased from 40-30%
increased meat consumption
increased refined carbs
decrease in dietary fibre
increased kcals/day -240
a condition or behaviour associated with an increased frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal - persist over time, cluster
How many lbs of sugar does the avg Canadian consume/year
151lbs - high fructose corn syrup has increased
sugar industry and coronary heart disease research
From harvard was anti-fat pushing the idea tht ind should be consuming more sugar and carbs
fructose is cleared by
liver via portal vein
storage of glucose
glycogen but rate limiting by ATP citrate - prevents glucose from entering the mitochondria - instead of glycogen turns into fructose then acetyl co-A then fatty acids
FA in mitochondria increased by fructose
fat stored in liver where its not supposed to be incraseing risks for chronic disease and specifically type 2 diabetes
where does fructose come from?
all sugar sources, honey, table sugar
sat fat vs CVD risk
3 studies that says it doesnt
three that says it doesnt, 1 does
Sat fat increases CVD risk, so we should?
Move toward vegetable oils, but they were unstable so they used hydrogrenation to increase shelf life
Worse because it decreases HDL and increases LDL
Lower sat fat replaced with increased unsat fat intake will
Increase LDL and reduces the CVD risk
Why are sat fats and trans fats bad for you
Very stable - atherscelerosis
Food guide and sat fat
Bad, unsat fat will decreases CVD and LDL
Doctors and sat fat
Shouldn’t ban it, should be a cap but could lead o iron deficiency esp in females
Heart and Stroke and sat fat
pro- even when it increases LDL, but would like to see a wholesome diet
consumption of 100g red meat/day
no increased risk of CVD
Processed meat and carcinogenic risk
Group 1 - carcinogenic and great risk of CVD/chronic disease - hotdogs, ham, bacon, cold cuts, sausage
unprocessed meat and carcinogenic risk
Group 2A - probable carcinogen risk, not sure of mechanism - fresh red meat, beef and lamb,, ground meats, pork (similar nutrionally to beef)
No red meat = risk of
iron deficiency anemia
Controversy regarding consumption of unsat fat from England
increase in omega 6 my be linked to increased oxidation in the body
whats more important in a diet
quality instead of one nutrient/sat fat intake alone
What kind of cancer is eating processed meat associated to?
Doses red meat increase CVD risk?
Not necessarily, but increased risk with other cancers that are not conclusive.
5 Canadian perceptions about a healthy diet contains the following
Fruits and veggies
Good source of protein - usually meat
- salt, refined carbs (sugar, white flour)
- fresh, unprocessed, homemade
Balance, variety’s moderation
Farthest spot b/w McDonald’s in US - two tiny hamlets in South Dakota of 107 miles
How do food manufacturers exploit the system?
Say healthy but.. they are chocolate bars
Nova food classification system
Gp1: unprocessed/minimally processed - one or two steps - fresh dried/frozen veggies, grains, legumes, fruits, meats, fish, eggs, milk
2: processed culinary ingredients - sugars, fats, oils, salt
3: processed foods - 2/3 ingredients - breads, cheese, canned plant, animal foods
4: ultra-processed foods and drink - 5/6 ingredients esp additives - fast food, sugary drinks, snacks, chips, candies, cookies, sweetened cereals, sauces and dressings
2004 Canadian Community Health Survey data using NOVA classification system -%s
47.7% kcal from gp4, 39.2 gp1, 6.1 gp2, 7 gp 3
Ultra processed food associated with?
Reduced protein, fibre, potassium, calcium
Increased free sugar, total fat, sodium and energy density
- over the past 80 years Canadians replaced group 1 with gp 4
A ultra processed diet is linked to
Increased risk in obesity
New food guide - golden rule and 4 recommendations
Always natural/minimally processed foods, freshly made dishes not ultra processed foods
1. Make natural/minimally processed foods the basis of your diet
2. Oils, fat,s salt, sugar in small amounts
3. Limit processed foods - as ingredients or parts of meal
4. Avoid ultra processed foods
Who has the best food guide world wide?
When will the new food guide labels on food items come out?
2021 - grouping of sugars - warning of high in sugar, fat and sodium
Are all processed foods bad?
No because you can avoid food borne illnesses - cleaner food and safer supplies
Paleolithic diets with the kitava study
Low chronic disease risk and prevalence
Paleolithic diet with South American tsimane study
Lower atherosclerosis markers
Decreased CVD risk
How much chronic disease can be eliminated from what we know?
What’s good high fat?
What’s good low fat
Fruits and veggies
How many calories right now come from processed foods?