Flashcards in Nutrition And Chronic Diseases Reading Deck (46):
Who did a report on Obesity in Canada?
Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology
48,000-66,000 Canadians die from conditions associated with?
Fractions of adults and children that are obese or overweight
2/3 adults and 1/3 children
Overweight and obesity are the results of?
Sustained imbalance between the energy intake (food and beverage) and the energy needs (sum of the body’s basic metabolic requirements plus additional PA)
What do the increases in obesity in numbers mean?
2 fold increase in proportion of obese adults and 3 fold in the proportion of children since 1980
What chronic conditions have been increased in rate and what does that mean?
Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke and some cancers - increased demand on the health care system
Who created the Canadian food guide and what’s it called?
Health Canada - Eating well with Canada’s Food Guide “the food guide”
What else is Health Canada responsible for?
Establishing food labelling requirements
both the food guide and nutrition labelling are intended to ___, but the effectiveness remains unclear as?
help canadians choose a healthy diet - lack of data comparing general consumption over time or how it has affecte consumption - says we have gone up by 240kcal/person/day but witness indicates data were quite limited on specifics
Data collection in the 70s then the 2000s
dietitians of canada collected in the 1970s tunder the nutrition canada National Survey then 2000 under the Canadian Community Health Survey
Fat in the early 70s - why is it likely not a primary contributor to obesity.
40% of total kcals, Canadians were encouraged to reduce fat which went down to 31% by 2004 - during this time obesity doubled for adults and tripled for children
Carbs include - 3
fibre, starch. sugars
refined carbs (5)
processed grains refined flours, fruit and vegetable juices and refined sugars - high fructose corn syrup
consumption of refined carbs - between 1980 and 2000
steadily increased in the states, same can be expected in Canada
fruits and veggie servings
70% of children aged 4-8 did not meet the 5-serving min, 9-13 at 65% and adults 50%
What 3 elements of diet is being targeted for discussion?
salt, sugar, and fat
Whats so bad about salt?
Morton Satin of the Salt Institute said consumption has decreased since?
sodium chloride no kcal so not blamed for increased body fat - but used to increase palatability and improve shelf life of processed and prepackaged foods that are high calorie, low nutrient
excretion vs consumption of salt
we can excrete far greater
do we emphasize the neg health effects associated with high sodium? what are they?
high BP, CV disease - no
15% of pop. should consume sodium reduced
fat associated with?
compared to other macros?
where does it come from? which ones are healthier?
associated with excess body fat and increased risk of various chronic disease
unsat healthy from plant and sat from animals
fat consumption recommendations
1982 - limit consumption
1992 - restriction
consumption of red meat compared to now?
why is there so much controversy around fat?
studies are from 50s-60s were poor designed, misinterpreted/over interpreted
People have been compensating fat with?
increased carbs in the form of processed foods
consumption of refined cards
only decline in sucrose industry and increase in high fructose corn syrup processed from corn starch into constituent glucose molecules and from glucose to fructose
how often is sugar (sucrose and HFCS) added into foods?
Prepackaged/processed/ready to eat foods - examples
how much consumption?
Should we consume them and why?
ultra-processed foods like instant noodes, pizzas, confection, soft drinks and salty snacks are used multiple processing techniques - 62 % of the canadians diet (largest increase) - when should be kept to a min/avoid - high calorie, salt, fat, sugar and low in nutrient
recommended - freshly prepared at home
in 2012, how many canadaisna re eating the lower recommended number of fruits and veggies of 5 servings?
30 years ago to now, whats the increase in children entering adulthood with obesity or overweight?
15-30% - natural progression of excess weight is to continue increase by 2-5%/yr
Rising rates of obesity is symptompatic of what chronic conditions?
diabetes, HBP, heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, certain cancers such as breast, endometrial, colorectal, esophageal, gallbladder, kidney, liver, pancreas and uterine.
T2D ind have an increased risk of - 6
heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, amputation(increased risk of infected wounds), blindness, dementia - due to difficulty of controlling blood sugar levels
life expectancy reduced 5-15 yrs
how many cases in Canada can be attributed to excess body weight?
Why is refined sugar bad?
sugar is emptied quickly into SI - sucrose is broken into fructose and glucose and sent to liver - liver has to convert fructose back to glucose to go around the body or used to produce glycogen (used for overnight fasting) - but fructose can processed into triglycerides when liver is cramped up with fructose (visceral fat)
Metabolic syndrome/disorder is caused by?
HBP, high blood glucose, excess body fat (visceral fat), abnormal cholesterol levels
can you treat metabolic diseases
can be reversed through diet and PA, left untreated it progresses to chronic diseases
metabolic diseases in obese vs normal ind
80% vs 40%
Why is the advice of reducing fat not effective in reducing metabolic syndrome?
increased consumption of carbs in processed foods
risk of childhood obesity when the woman enter the pregnancy obese/overweight or gain excessive weight during pregnancy
30-40% - intrauterine of women who gain weight during pregnancy is alter and results in epigenetic changes in the fetus' DNA - (small genetic changes)
obese population in canada
Ultra-processed product satiation
less and hyperglycemic compared to group 1
Group 4 is associated with
higher risk of overweight and obesity
Canadian Community health survey measured food consumption using 2 24h food recalls
everything someone ate or drank - gp 4 more than 1
gp 4 vs gp 1 contents - 6
less protein, more free sugars and fat, more sodium, less potassium and calcium, less fibre and more energy dense