Neurobiology test 2 definitions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurobiology test 2 definitions Deck (35):
1

Tolerance

How much dosage is needed to get the same effects

2

Precursor

A substance from which another substance is formed

3

Sensitization

Same dose will have a augmented (more intense) effect

4

Agonist

Drug that will facilitate the post-synaptic effects

5

Antagonist

Drug that will BLOCK the post-synaptic effects

6

Margin of safety

The difference of the negative effects of the drug and the positive effects of the drug

7

Drug-dose response curve

Shows the ratio of dosage of the drug compared to the neg/pos effects of the drug.

Space between the 2 curves is the margin of safety

8

Ways to get drug into the body

Injection
Oral
Anally
Inhalation
Sublingual
Topically

9

Areas of interest for psychopharmacology

The effects on the body
The active site for the drug
The pharmakinetics (how it enters, travels through and leaves the body)

10

Two ways drugs reach the brain in animal models

Intracerebral- Targets areas of the brain
Intracerebralven

11

Two ways drugs reach the brain in animal models

Intracerebral- Targets areas of the brain
Intracerebralven

12

Criteria to be a neurotransmitter

Located in presynaptic cell
Activated by Ca+
Subjected to inactivation (breakdown)
Has a receptor that accepts the ligand

13

What are the 3 ways signals can transmit across neurons

Neuocrine Signaling
Paracrine signaling
Endocrine signaling

14

What are the 3 ways signals can transmit across neurons

Neuocrine Signaling
Paracrine signaling
Endocrine signaling

15

Three ways ACh is transmitted

Somatic- ACh delivered directly between muscle and spinal cord
Parasympathetic- Delivered to the synaptic junction and the NMJ
Sympathetic- Delivered to the synaptic junction (NE at NMJ)

16

Where is ACh produced in the body

Pons
Basil forebrand
Medial Septum
Candace/Putamen in basil ganglia

17

What synthesizes ACh

Acetyl co-enzyme and choline

18

What will break down ACh

acetylcholinesterase

19

Where is norepinephrine found and where is it produced

Found in sympathetic nervous system
Produced is the locus coeruleus

20

What cell makes norepinephrine and what secretes it

Made by adrenergic cells and secreted by varicosities

21

What areas will transfer/release dopamine

Substantia Nigra
Ventral Tegmental Area

22

What tracks release dopamine in the SN and how does the dopamine travel

The nigrostriatal track
From the SN to the Basal Ganglia

23

What tracks release dopamine in the VTA and how does the dopamine travel

Mesolimbic - VTA to limbic system
Mesocortical- VTA to cortex

24

What will block dopamine receptors on a cell

Cocaine

25

What will deactivate catecholamine

Monoamines Oxidase

26

What will deactivate serotonin

Monoamine Oxidase

27

Where is serotonin released

Throughout the brain

28

What cells have access to tryptophan

All cells

29

Where is the serotonin produced

The Raphe nuclei

30

What can Monoamines Oxidase break down

Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Serotonin

31

What can Monoamines Oxidase break down

Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Serotonin

32

What is the function of a neuropeptide

Regulates glucose level

33

How can drugs effect neurotransmitters

How they are released
How they are synthesized
How they are packaged
How they are received

34

What effect does Marijuana have on NT

Will effect dopamine downstream
Stimulates cannabinoid receptors
Very low toxicity so hard to overdose

35

What are the effects of LSD

Will alter ones perceptions