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Flashcards in Neurobiology Memory Deck (47):
1

What is another term for short term memory

Working memory

2

What are the 3 subunits of working memory

Executive control
Verbal Subsystem
Spatial Subsystem

3

What is the job of the executive control

It is the organizer
It will allocate resources to other subunits
It will monitor, manipulate and update memories

4

What is the job of the verbal subsystem

Remembering verbal information via broccas area

5

What is the job of the spatial subsystem

Remembering enviornment

6

Where is the spatial subsystem active in the brain

Occipital
Temporal
Paretial

7

What area of the brain will maintain all the information in working memory

The prefrontal cortex

8

What are the two types of long term memory

Explicit and implicit memory

9

What are the 4 stages of processing in explicit learning

Encoding
Storage
Consolidation
Retrieval

10

What is explicit learning

A conscious retrieval of previous experiences like people, places, or facts.

11

What is implicit learning

Automatic unconscious learning

12

When does implicit memory work best

When the event closely resembles a given situation

13

What are the four components of implicit memory

Priming
Procedural
Non-associative learning
Associative learning

14

What is classical conditioning

When there are two stimuli one conditioned and one unconditioned.

15

What will create a response conditioned or unconditioned stimuli

Unconditioned

16

What is operant conditioning

There is punishment and reward for choices made

17

Absent mindedness

Forgetting to carry out a task due to lack of attention to detail

18

What is blocking in memory

Temporary can't access memory due to malfunction of executive control

19

Suggestibility

Persuading you to choose an answer or modify your memory

20

Bias

Altering memories based on ones own beliefs

21

Persistance

Remembering something when you are trying not to remember it

22

What's habitation

Learning to ignore a stimulus after repeated exposure

23

What will cause short term habitation

Decrease in NT release

24

What will cause long term habitation

Decrease in the number of synapses in the cell

25

Sensitization in memory response

Repeated stimuli can cause intense reflexes even with non-harmful stimuli

26

Sensitization in memory response

Repeated stimuli can cause intense reflexes even with non-harmful stimuli

27

What NT will serotonin increase and how

Will stimulate production of glutamate by releasing cAMP

28

What is consolidation

Conversion of short term memory into long term memory

29

What changes in the cell with short term memory

More NT are released and there are alterations to the Ca influx and K channels

30

What changes in the cell with long term memory

More synaptic connections
More PKA
CREB changes genes
New proteins

31

What did the mutant fly experiment show

The importance of the cAMP pathway
They showed a decrees in implicit memory

32

What is Hebban plasticity

Explicit learning will occur when the synapse fires regularly.
"If they Fire together, they are Wired together"

33

What is long term potentiation how long will it last

Long lasting increase in EPSP amplitude
From days to weeks

34

Where will long term potentiation occur

Hippocampus

35

What receptors are involved in Long lasting potentiation

AMPA
NDMA

36

What impact will the LTP have on the cell

Activates PKC
Activates AMPA
Activates NO (Retrograde)

37

What is normal depolarization in LTP

Normal functioning EPSP but will have no LTP

38

What is cooperatively depolarization with LTP

Small EPSP from multimode neurons. This may create LTP

39

What is Associativity with ATP

Simulates large and small depolarization and will have LTP in THESE NEURONS ONLY

40

Specificity in LTP

Stimulated neuron will have LTP
Unstimulated neuron will not undergo LTP
Ensures selective memory

41

What causes early LTP

Release of NT

42

What causes Late LTP

Synaptic connections in ore and post synapse

43

Where does spatial memory take place in the brain

The hippocampus

44

What is long term depression

A decrease in synaptic strength following a prolonged stimulus

45

What will remove AMPA receptors

Calcineruim caused by low levels of calcium
Will reduce action potentials

46

What will happen to the synapse connections as we gain new memories

Synapse connections are lost in order to develop new ones

47

What structure will change for memory be enhanced or repaired

Hippocampus will need to change