Neurodevelopmental and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurodevelopmental and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Deck (11):
1

Intellectual Disability

•Problems in intellectual functioning
- Confirmed by clinical assessment & testing

•Problems in adaptive functioning
- Communication, social participation, independent living

•Onset during development

2

Levels of Intellectual Disability (ID)

• Mild – IQ 50-70 (85% of ID in this category)
• Moderate – IQ 35-49 (10% of ID)
• Severe – IQ 20-34 (3-4% of ID)
• Profound IQ <20 (1-2% of ID)

3

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

• Core symptoms:
- Inattention (6+ symptoms)
• Hyperactivity-Impulsiveness

4

ADHD - Inattention

• Failure to pay attention to details, careless mistakes

• Difficulty focusing in tasks or play

• Does not listen when spoken to

• Failure to follow through with instructionsDifficulty with organization

• Avoids tasks requiring sustained attention

• Often loses things

• Easily distracted

• Often forgetful

5

ADHD – Hyperactive/Impulsive

• Often fidgets or squirms

• Often gets out of seat when not supposed to

• Often runs or climbs when inappropriateUnable to play or engage in leisure quietly

• Always on the go/restless, unable to sit still

• Often talks excessively

• Often prematurely blurts out answers

• Often interrupts others

6

ADHD Correlates

• Learning or communication problems

• Poor school performance

• Difficulty interacting with other children

• Misbehavior, often serious

• Mood or anxiety problems

7

ADHD: Biological Contributions

• Genetic
- ADHD runs in families
- Familial ADHD may involve deficits on chromosome 20

• Brain dysfunction
- Dopamine and norepinephrine
- Abnormal frontal lobe development & functioning
- Often smaller volume or reduced blood flow to key brain areas (e.g., prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, cerebellum)

• Prenatal factors
- Smoking, alcohol use, stress

8

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

• At least 4 symptoms from any of the following categories directed at someone other than a sibling and for at least 6 months:
- Angry/irritable mood
- Argumentative/defiant
- Vindictiveness

• Associated with distress for individual or others

• Not better explained by other disorders

9

ODD Symptoms

• Angry/irritable mood
• Argumentative/defiant behavior
• Vindictive/spiteful at least twice within last 6 months

10

Conduct Disorder

• Persistent pattern of behavior in which others rights or societal norms are violated, at least 3 criteria in last 12 months and 1 in last 6 months:
- Aggression to people or animals
- Destruction of property
- Deceitfulness or theft
- Serious violations of rules

• School, work, or social impairment

11

Treating Behavioral Problems

• Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)
- Increasing positive interactions
- Reducing negative interactionsEstablishing authority

• Parent Training
- Planned ignoring
- Reinforcement programs

• School and residential programs