Flashcards in Neuropathology Deck (40)
How can infections get into the brain?
Direct Spread (Otitis Media)
What can infections in the brain cause?
What are the Pathogens for different types of Encephalitis?
Spinal Cord - Polio
Temporal Lobe - Herpes
Brainstem - Rabies
What is Encephalitis?
Infection and inflammation of the neuronal cell bodies.
Can lead to cell death and formation of inclusion bodies
What is "chronic" meningitis?
Causes Granulomatous disease, fibrosis, nerve entrapment
How can you get an abcess in the brain?
Via inner ear infection --> Internal auditory meatus --> temporal lobe
What are some consequences of meningitis?
Systemic --> Sepsis
Herniation due to raised ICP --> death
What is Prion Disease?
Accumilation of mutated prion proteins which damage cell bodies.
This creates holes in the grey matter.
How do you get Prion Disease?
Exposure to Prions themselves from food, sporadic mutation, or can be familial
What is a spongiform encephalopathy?
What do you get it in?
What can Prion Disease Cause?
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease
What symptoms do you get with CJD?
Loss of Interest
What is Dementia?
An acquired global impairment of brain function, that does not cause a loss of consciousness
What is Lewy Body Dementia?
Caused by accumilation of misfolded proteins which aggregate and form Lewy Bodies.
Leads to loss of attention and alertness
What are the types of dementia?
What is Alzheimers?
Dementia caused by neuronal damage (forming Tangles and Plaques) and loss of neurotransmitters.
This leads to atrophy of brain tissue
What is a plaque?
Aggregation of amyloid with enlarged axons, dendrites and synaptic terminals
What is a tangle?
Tau proteins are hyper phosphorylated and twist together
What is the survival rate of Alzheimers
7 to 10 years
Early signs of AD?
Later signs of AD?
Can we treat AD?
We can limit early symptoms and delay progression with AChE inhibitors
What is Vascular Dementia?
Dementia caused by a loss or problem with the blood supply to the brain
It can be multi-infarct, post-stroke, subcortical or mixed with AD
What are the signs of vascular dementia?
CVS risk factors
Memory is less affected early on
Problems with following instructions/cognition
Can we treat V Dementia?
We can manage the CVS risk factors to prevent progression
What is Picks Disease?
Fronto-temporal dementia caused by a build up of abnormal proteins
It has no treatment
What are the symptoms of Picks Disease
Get behavioural and personality changes (loss of inhibition) and speech difficulties
What is a raised intracranial pressure?
Sustained over 20mmHg
What can cause a raised ICP?
What can happen in an enlarging SOL?
Increasing ICP leading to Herniation
What are the types of herniation?
What are the benign tumours of the brain?
What are some malignant brain tumours?
Metastasis (most common)
Describe a subfalcine herniation
There is a SOL on the same side, the cingulate gyrus is forced underneath the falx cerebri to the other side of the brain
This can compress the ACA and lead to ischaemia of the brain
Describe a uncal/tentorial herniation
The parahippocampal gyrus is forced underneath the tentorial notch by a lesion above it.
This can compress CNIII, the PCA and the SCerebellarAs
Describe a tonsillar herniation
Raised ICP leads to the cerebellar tonsils herniating through the foramen magnum of the skull and compressing the brainstem
Leads to death
What is tonsillar herniation also known as?
What can happen secondary to a tentorial herniation?
A duret herniation into the brainstem
What is a lacunar infarct?
Less than 1cm
Commonly in the Basal Ganglia
Associated with Hypertension