Neurology Definitions Flashcards Preview

PPE > Neurology Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurology Definitions Deck (43):
1

Ataxia

Lack of voluntary control

2

Atonia

Loss of muscle tone

3

Hyper/Hypotonia

Increase or decrease in muscle tone

4

Parathesia

Lack of sensation

5

Paraplegia

Paralysis of the lower half of the body

6

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four limbs

7

Dysphagia

Loss of swallow

8

Dysphonia

Inability to speak

9

Dysmetria

Loss of balance

10

Dysdiadochokinesia

Inability to make rapid, alternating movements

11

Apraxia

Loss of co-ordination

12

Aphasia

Loss of speech

13

Areflexia/Hypo/Hyperreflexia

Loss of, increase or decrease in reflexes

14

Agnosia

Loss of sensory recognition

15

Bradykinesia

Slow movement

16

Dysarthria

Difficulty Speaking

17

Dyslexia

Difficulty reading

18

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one half of the body

19

Palsy

Muscle Paralysis

20

Paresis

Muscle Weakness

21

Rigidity

Increase in muscle tone meaning movement is restricted

22

Spasticity

Altered muscle performance die to paralysis

23

Neural Networks

A series of neurons which come together to create a linear pathway

24

Emergence

When neurones all work together to create a larger function e.g. consciousness

25

Hydrocephalus

The accumilation of CSF in the ventricles

26

Aneurysm

Abnormal dilatation of an artery

27

Stroke

An abrupt loss of brain function that lasts for more than 24 hours

28

Decussation

The crossing of neurones across the midline of the CNS

29

Lateral Inhibition

When interneurones inhibit their neighbouring neurones to localise sensation

30

Two Point Discrimination

The ability to tell the difference between two sensory inputs. The smaller the receptive field, the better the discrimination

31

Proprioception

The ability to tell

32

Proprioception

The ability to tell where you are in space

33

Brown-Sequard Syndrome

One sided lesion of the spinal cord
Due to trauma
Causes ipsi loss of DCIM
Causes contra loss of AL

34

Allodynia

When a receptor becomes heightened and responds to a normal sensation, making it into a painful one

35

Receptor Field Expansion

When the size of the receptor field increases, so pain is felt in a larger area of the skin/body, rather than localised to where the stimulus is

36

Phantom Limb Pain

When there is pain in a limb post-amputation. Usually occurs when the limb is in pain when amputated e.g. post-trauma, in emergency situations

37

Mixed Pain

In cancer
Has features of both pains

38

Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome

Disease of the extremities
Usually one limb
Associated with a previous trauma
Pain is disproportionate to initial event

39

Nociceptive Pain

After operations or trauma
Similar to visceral pain

40

Neuropathic Pain

Burning/Shooting pain
Pain of neural origin
e.g. neuropathy

41

Homunculus

A representation of the body in the cortex
A map of the anatomical divisions of the body
The topography of the brain

42

Clonus

Muscle spasms: multiple, rhythmic contractions

43

Nystagmus

Uncontrolled movement of the eyes, especially in the lateral gaze and pointing towards the lesion