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Flashcards in Neuropathology Deck (25):
1

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Abnormal buildup of CSF
Cause:Idiopathic or secondary to head trauma, infection, subarachnoid hemmorrhage.
CS&S: Gait abnormality, (Gait Apraxia) cognitive disturbances, urinary incontinence.
Treatment: large volume lumbar puncture, or shunt.

2

Gait Apraxia

Muscles and innervation are normal, but patient has an inability to perform a learned act correctly.

3

Stroke

Interruption of blood flow to the brain.

4

Risk factor for stroke

High BP
Diabetes
Heart Disease
Smoking
Age
Gender
Race/Ethnicity
Family
Brain Aneurysms
Arteriovenous malformations

5

CS&S of a Stroke

Sudden Weakness
Sudden Severe Headache
Paralysis
Difficulty Speaking
Difficulty Breathing
Lack of coordination
Difficulty seeing
Confusion

6

Ischemic Stroke

Blood clot occludes blood flow

7

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Blood vessel bursts

8

Transient Ischemic Attack

TIA
"Mini Stroke"
Same CS&S as a stroke
Symptoms resolve within an hour

9

Treatment of Stroke

Tissue plasminogen activator (must be used within 4 hours of symptoms, or risk of hemmhorage increases.

10

Glial Cell tumors

Most prominent cell type in CNS
CS&S: Repetetive headaches, elevated ICP, Seizures,.

11

Treatment of Glial Cell

Surgery, Radiation, Chemo, Steroids

12

Glioblastoma Multiforme

Most common primary brain tumor
Stage 4
Commonly found in the frontal and temporal lobes
Butterfly shaped
Arises from Astrocytes

13

Ologodendroglioma

Arises from oligodendroblasts
Benign tumor
accounts for 5% of Gliomas
50% of cases calcify

14

Ependymoma

Benign tumor, typically within the ventricles.
Arise from ependymal cells
Most common gliomas in the spinal cord.

15

Meningiomas

Most commonly associated with the arachnoid mater
Slow growing
Mesenchymal in origin

16

Pituitary adenomas

Most common tumors of pituitary gland
Alter growth hormones
Neoplastic cells look/function like host cells
Represents 8% of primary brain tumors

17

Lymphoma

Unique: grow adjacent to ventricular structures
Arises from B lymphocytes
Can be controlled with chemo/radiation

18

Medulloblastoma

Represent 7% of primary brain tumors
Can metastasize via CSF
Arise exclusively in the cerebellum from cells in the granular layer of the cortex

19

Brain Metastases

Can occur from a variety of tumor types. Most commonly, Lung, breast, carcinoma, and melanoma.
Some have a tendency to hemorrhage, most commonly lung cancer.

20

Pediatric Brain Tumors

Most common in posterior fossa.

21

Mass Effect

Displacement of brain tissue due to intracranial event such as hemorrhaging or tumor growth.
Due to increase in ICP
Resulting deficits, herniation syndromes.

22

Herniation Syndrome

Types:
Subfalcine
Uncal
Central
Tonsillar

23

Subfalcine Herniation

Cingulate herniation
Mass effect in the supratentorial compartment.
Forces cingulate gyrus under/against the falx cerebri.
Occurs more frequently in superior portions of the hemisphere, such as the parietal lobe or the parieto-frontal area
CS&S: inability to recall memory, or form new.

24

Central Herniation

Diencephalic stage
Transtentorial herniation

25

Diencephalic Stage

Expanding mass in the frontal, parietal, or occipital lobe.