Flashcards in Neuropathology Deck (25):
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Abnormal buildup of CSF
Cause:Idiopathic or secondary to head trauma, infection, subarachnoid hemmorrhage.
CS&S: Gait abnormality, (Gait Apraxia) cognitive disturbances, urinary incontinence.
Treatment: large volume lumbar puncture, or shunt.
Muscles and innervation are normal, but patient has an inability to perform a learned act correctly.
Interruption of blood flow to the brain.
Risk factor for stroke
CS&S of a Stroke
Sudden Severe Headache
Lack of coordination
Blood clot occludes blood flow
Blood vessel bursts
Transient Ischemic Attack
Same CS&S as a stroke
Symptoms resolve within an hour
Treatment of Stroke
Tissue plasminogen activator (must be used within 4 hours of symptoms, or risk of hemmhorage increases.
Glial Cell tumors
Most prominent cell type in CNS
CS&S: Repetetive headaches, elevated ICP, Seizures,.
Treatment of Glial Cell
Surgery, Radiation, Chemo, Steroids
Most common primary brain tumor
Commonly found in the frontal and temporal lobes
Arises from Astrocytes
Arises from oligodendroblasts
accounts for 5% of Gliomas
50% of cases calcify
Benign tumor, typically within the ventricles.
Arise from ependymal cells
Most common gliomas in the spinal cord.
Most commonly associated with the arachnoid mater
Mesenchymal in origin
Most common tumors of pituitary gland
Alter growth hormones
Neoplastic cells look/function like host cells
Represents 8% of primary brain tumors
Unique: grow adjacent to ventricular structures
Arises from B lymphocytes
Can be controlled with chemo/radiation
Represent 7% of primary brain tumors
Can metastasize via CSF
Arise exclusively in the cerebellum from cells in the granular layer of the cortex
Can occur from a variety of tumor types. Most commonly, Lung, breast, carcinoma, and melanoma.
Some have a tendency to hemorrhage, most commonly lung cancer.
Pediatric Brain Tumors
Most common in posterior fossa.
Displacement of brain tissue due to intracranial event such as hemorrhaging or tumor growth.
Due to increase in ICP
Resulting deficits, herniation syndromes.
Mass effect in the supratentorial compartment.
Forces cingulate gyrus under/against the falx cerebri.
Occurs more frequently in superior portions of the hemisphere, such as the parietal lobe or the parieto-frontal area
CS&S: inability to recall memory, or form new.