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Flashcards in Neuroscience Deck (221):
1

Week of gastrulation

3

2

Who induces the formation of neuro system

Notochord

3

Notochord secrets __________ to induce the formation of nervous system

Sonic hedgehog

4

Open neural tube defects double marker

Alfa feto protein
Acetilcolinesterasis

5

Primary vesicles

Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbra

6

Optic nerve secondary vesicle of brain

Telencephalon

7

Rostral failure of neural tube

Anencephaly

8

Caudal failure of neural tube

Spina bifida

9

Open neural caudal failure

Myeloschisis

10

Spina bifida clinic

Tuft of hair

11

Arnold Chiari type I

Asymptomatic
Downward displacement of cerebelar tonsils

12

Arnold Chiari type II

Symptomatic
Compression of IV ventricle
Associated with meningomyelocele

13

Dandy Walker malformation

Agenesis of cerebelar vermis
Dilatation of IV ventricle

14

Holoprosencephaly

Incomplete separation of cerebral hemispheres
Trisomy of 13 (Patau)

15

Arnold Chiari type I association

Syringomyelia

16

Arnold Chiari type II association

Meningomyelocele

17

Superior cervical glanglion in the head innervates

Sweat glands
Dilator pupilae
Superior tarsal m

18

Horner’s syndrome sings

Ptosis
Miosis
Anhydrosis

19

3 lesion sites that causes Horner’s Syndrome

T1 (Pancoast)
Carotid dissection
Descending hypothalamic axons

20

What do the Nissil stains

Rough endoplasmatic tissue

21

Energy source of anterograde axonal transport

Kinesin

22

Energy source of retrograde axonal transport

Dynein

23

Form myelin for axons in CNS

Oligodendrocytes

24

Form myelin for axons in PNS

Schwann cells

25

Symptoms lost in time and space
Impaired myelination

Multiple sclerosis

26

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Optic neuritis
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Motor/sensory deficits
Vertigo
Neuropsychiatric

27

All Cranial Nerves are from PNS EXCEPT

Optic nerve

28

Acute
Symmetric ascending inflammatory neuropathy of PNS

Guillain-Barrè syndrome

29

Supports blood-brain barrier

Astrocytes

30

axon injury: distal part

Degenerates

31

Axon injury: proximal part

Chromatolysis

32

Most common primary tumor

Glioblastoma

33

High malignancy
Cross midline - butterfly glioma
Areas of necrosis

Glioblastoma

34

Second most common primary tumor
Psammoma bodies

Meningioma

35

Hearing loss
Tinitus
CN V+VII signs

Schwannoma

36

Schwannoma if bilateral

Neurofibromatosis type 2

37

Rathke’s pouch tumor

Craniopharyngioma

38

Compress optic chiasm
Common in children
Adamantinoma

Craniopharyngioma

39

SHH mutation
Blue, round, small cells with pseudorosettes

Meduloblastoma

40

Fried egg appearance primary tumor

Oligodendroglioma

41

Rosenthal fibers
Immunostaining with GFAP

Astrocytoma

42

Connects 3rd to 4th ventricle

Cerebral aqueduct

43

Who produces CSF

Choroid plexus

44

Non communicating hydrocephalus

Blockage
Dandy walker

45

Communicating hydrocephalus

Drainage problem

46

Normal pressure hydrocephalus triad

Dementia
Apraxic gait (magnetic)
Urinary incontinence

47

Upper limp spinal nerves

C5-T1

48

Lower limbs spinal nerves

L1-S2

49

_______ matter are neurons cell bodies, and _______ matter are tracts of axons

Gray, white

50

Renshaw cells

Prevent excessive motor contractions

51

Upper motor neurons form _________ tract

Corticospinal

52

Spastic paresis
Hyperreflexia

UMN lesion

53

Flaccid paralysis
Arreflexia

LMN lesion

54

Babinski’s sign

UMN lesion

55

Fasciculations

LMN severe lesion

56

Where the UMN crosses midline

Pyramidal decussation

57

LMN is always ____________ to the innervated muscle

Ipsilateral

58

Motor system is a ____ neurons pathway, and sensory system is a _____ neurons pathway.

2,3

59

Second sensory neurons courses in the spinal cord as _________ or ______

Lemniscus or tract

60

Proprioception and touch (vibratory, fine, pressiona and 2-point discrimination)

Medial lemniscus

61

Dorsal column has 2 fasciculus

Cuneatus and Gracilis

62

Fasciculus cuneatus is ________ and gracilis is __________
(Medial/lateral)

Lateral, medial

63

Pain and temperature

Spinothalamic tract

64

Lesion of fasciculus cuneatus

Loss of vibratory sensation

65

What is brown-sequard syndrome

Hemissection of the spinal cord
- corticospinal
- dorsal columns
- sponothalamic

66

Brown-sequard syndrome signs

IPSILATERAL spastic paresis below the injury
IPSILATERAL loss of joint position sense, tactile and vibratory sensuous below the lesion
CONTRALATERAL loss of pain and temperature 2 segments below the lesion

67

Polio symptoms

bilateral flaccid paralysis
Muscle atrophy
Fasciculations
Arreflexia

68

Polio destroys ______ motor neurons

Lower

69

Tabes dorsais what is

Late stage of neurossiphilys

70

Tabes dorsalis symptoms

3p: pins and needles (paresthesias)
Pain
Polyuria
Supressed reflexes

71

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Flaccid paralysis in upper limbs (LMN)
Spastic paralysis in lower limbs (UMN)
Increased tone and reflexes

72

Anterior spinal artery occlusion

Spastic bladder
Mid thoracic levels
Dorsal columns sparred

73

Subacute combined degeneration cause

Dramatic loss of vit B12
Pernicious anemia

74

Subacute combined degeneration symptoms

Paresthesias
Bilateral spastic weakness
Babinski
Sensory ataxia

75

Syringomyelia

Progressive enlargement of the central canal of the spinal cord

76

What cranial nerves are not from the brain stem

I, II e IX

77

What CN arise from midbrain

III, IV

78

What CN arise from pons

V, VI, VII e VIII

79

What CN arise from upper medulla

IX, X e XII

80

Marker of upper medulla

Inferior olivary nucleus

81

CN I

Olfactory

82

Lesion of CN I

Anosmia

83

CN II

Optic

84

Only CN affected by multiple sclerosis

Optic

85

Lesion in optic nerve

Loss of light reflex
Visual field deficits (anopsia)

86

CN III

Oculomotor

87

Raises eyelid
Constrict pupil
Accommodates

Oculomotor

88

Muscles innervated by CN III

Superior rectus
Inferior rectus
Medial rectus
Inferior oblique

89

Muscle and nerve that ADDUCT eye (look in)

Medial rectus
CN III

90

Eye movement from CN III

Adduct (look in)
Look up

91

Lesion in CN III

Diplopia
External strabismus
Ptosis
Loss of light reflex
Loss of near response

92

CN VI

Abducens

93

Eye movement from CN VI

ABDUCT (look out)

94

Muscle and CN that abduct the eye

Lateral rectus
CM VI

95

Lesion of CN VI

Diplopia
Internal strabismus
Loss of parallel gaze
“Pseudo ptosis”

96

CN IV

Trochlear

97

Muscle of CN IV

Superior oblique

98

Eye movement of CN IV

Look down and out
Intorts

99

Lesion of CN IV

Weakness looking down
Trouble going downstairs
Head tilts away from lesioned side

100

CN V

Trigeminal

101

CN V branches

Ophthalmic (v1)
Maxillary (v2)
Mandibular (v3)

102

V1 territory

Forehead
Scalp
Cornea

103

V2 territory

Palate/nasal/maxillary face and teeth

104

V3 territory

Mandibular face and teeth
Anterior 2/3 tongue

105

CN V lesion

Loss of blink reflex
Complete facial anesthesia ipsilateral
Jaw deviation toward week side

106

Trigeminal neuralgia

Intractable pain of V2/V3 territory

107

CN VII

Facial

108

CN VII innervation

Facial expression
Salivation
Taste anterior 2/3 tongue
Tears

109

Bell’s palsy

CN VII lesion

110

Bell’s palsy signs

Mouth droops
Can’t close eyes
Can’t wrinkle forehead
Loss blink reflex
Hyperacusia
Loss of taste
Dry eye

111

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear

112

CN VIII lesion

Sensory hearing loss
Loss of balance
Nystagmus

113

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal

114

CN IX innervation

Salivation (parotid gland)
Sensation to posterior 1/3 tongue

115

Which reflex is from CN IX

Gag reflex

116

Gag reflex stimulates

Swallowing
Palate elevates
Pharynx constricts
Larynx closes

117

CN X

Vagus

118

Structures from CN X

Palate, pharynx, larynx

119

Nasal speech
Regurgitation
Dysphagia
Palate droop
Uvulectomia affected side
Hoarseness
Loss of gag and cough reflex

CN X lesion

120

CN XI

Acessory

121

Lesion of CN XI

Shoulder drop

122

Muscles innervated from CN XI

Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius

123

CN XII

Hypoglossal

124

Lesion of CN XII

Tongue pointing to affected side on protusion

125

CN VII innervation is _______ to forehead and shut eye, and _________ nostrils and mouth
(Uni/bilateral) (ipsi/contralateral)

Bilateral/ contralateral

126

Presbyacusia

Loss of hair cells

127

Only place where the sensory hearing loss will be ipsilateral

CN VIII

128

Function of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

Ability to adduct an eye

129

Lesion of the vestibular nuclei

Vestibular nystagmus

130

Caloric test

COWS
cold water - opposite side nystagmus
Warm water - same side

131

Lesion in MLF

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

132

Branches of vertebral artery

Anterior spinal artery - medial medulla
Posterior inferior cerebelar Artery - lateral medulla

133

Lesion in posterior cerebral artery

Contralateral hemianopsia with macular spairing

134

Every Brain stem syndrome

Contralateral long tract + CN sign

135

Contralateral spastic paresis
Contralateral loss of tactile, vibration and conscious proprioception
Ipsilateral flaccid paralysis of tongue with tongue deviation on protusion to the lesion side

Medial medullary syndrome

136

Contralateral loss of pain and temperature
Absence of gag reflex
Ipsilateral paralysis of larynx, pharynx and palate (dysarthria and dysphagia)
Ipsilateral lower limb ataxia

Lateral medullary syndrome

137

Paramedian Artery lesion causes

Medial pontine syndrome

138

Contralateral loss of tactile, vibration, position
Contralateral spastic hemiparesia
Medial strabismus

Medial pontine syndrome

139

Posterior inferior cerebelar artery lesion causes

Lateral pontine syndrome

140

Ipsilateral ataxia
Contralateral loss of pain and temperature
Ipsilateral hearing loss
Ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome
Ipsilateral facial paralysis, loss of taste, lacrimation, salivation, hyperacusia
Vertigo, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus

Lateral pontine syndrome

141

Medial midbrain syndrome other name

Weber syndrome

142

Ipsilateral oculomotor palsy
Contralateral spastic hemiparesia
Contralateral hemiparesia of lower face

Medial midbrain syndrome

143

Lesion in corticobulbar tract

Contralateral hemiparesis of lower face

144

Dorsal midbrain syndrome other name

Parnaud syndrome

145

Cause of dorsal midbrain syndrome

Pineal tumor

146

Paralysis of upward gaze
Pupillary abnormalities
Non communicating hydrocephalus

Dorsal midbrain syndrome

147

Function of cerebellum

Fine tuning of skeletal muscle contralateral
Planning

148

Cerebellar vermis function

Trunk and proximal muscle

149

Intermediate cerebellar

Distal muscle

150

Lateral cerebellum

Motor planning

151

Where does the information comes in and out

Cerebelar peduncle

152

Layers of cerebellum Cortex

Molecular
Purkinje
Granule

153

Climbing fibers

Error detectors

154

Mossy fibers

Stimulates granule cells that stimulates purkinje cells

155

Deep cerebelar nuclei (4)

Fastigial
Globose
Emboliform
Dentate

156

Tremor in movement and absent at rest

Cerebellar lesion

157

Ipsilateral intention tremor
Dysmetria
Dysdiachokinesia
Scanning dysarthria
Gaze dysfunction
Supresa muscle stretch reflex

Hemisphere cerebellar lesion

158

Can’t do the finger-to-nose test

Hemisphere cerebellar lesion

159

Gait balance
Difficult to maintain posture

Lesion in vermis region

160

Basal ganglia function

Iniciate skeletal muscle contraction

161

Basal ganglia

Caudate nucleus and putâmen
Globus pallidus
Substancia nigra
Subthalamic nucleus

162

Direct pathway of basal ganglia

Drives motor cortex
Promotes movement
Enhanced by DOPA

163

Indirect pathway of basal ganglia

Inhibits motor cortex
Suppress unwanted movement
Enhanced by Ach

164

Tremor at rest

Basal ganglia disease

165

Loss of dopa in substancia nigra
Direct pathway
Lewy bodies

Parkinson

166

Pill rolling
Shuffling gait
Masked face

Parkinson

167

Degeneration of GABA in the indirect pathway
Autosomal dominant

Huntington disease

168

Can’t suppress involuntary movement
Chorea

Huntington

169

Autosomal recessive
Defect in copper transport

Wilson disease

170

Pathognomonic of Wilson disease

Kayser-Flesher ring

171

Parkinsonian or Chorea
Wing beating tremor

Wilson disease

172

Wild, flinging movements of limbs

Hemiballism

173

Unilateral
Indirect pathway
Hypertensive patients with lacunar stroke

Hemiballism

174

Tourette syndrome

Motor/ vocal tics
Treatment with antipsychotic

175

Inhibits prolactin

Dopamine

176

Lesion in lateral hypothalamic

Starvation

177

Lesion in ventromedial

Hyperphagia, obesity

178

Lesion in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

Diabetes insipid is

179

Blue sclera

Osteogenesis imperfeita

180

Age related macular degeneration

Central Scotomas

181

Open angle glaucoma

Drainage problem in the canal of Schlem
Peripheral visual loss

182

Pretectal lesion

Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Convergence is intact

183

Lesion in pretectal area
Pineal tumor, neurosyphylis, diabetes

Argyll Robertson pupil

184

Pupils don’t constrict to light response bilateral

Argyll Robertson pupil

185

Optic nerve lesion
Seen in multiple sclerosis
Diagnostic by swinging flashlight

Relative afferent pupil (Marcus Gunn)

186

Transtentorial herniation

Lesion CN III
fixed and dilated pupil

187

Ciliary ganglia lesion
Unilateral

Adil pupil

188

Visual defect
Small pituitary adenoma

Heteronyms superior quadrantopsia

189

Visual defect
Big pituitary adenoma

Bitemporal heteronyms hemianopsia

190

Visual defect
Acromegaly

Bitemporal heteronyms hemianopsia

191

Visual defect
Meyers loop lesion

Contralateral homonyms superior quadrandopia

192

Visual defect
Temporal lobe tumor

Contralateral homonyms superior quadrantopia

193

Visual defect
Posterior cerebral artery

Contralateral homonyms hemianopsia with macular sparring

194

Most common place for an aneurysm

Anterior communicating artery

195

Broca’s area

Motor speech

196

Wernickes area
Angular gyrus

Language comprehension

197

Lesion in left frontal lobe

Motor, non fluent, expressive aphasia

198

Can’t speak full sentence
Patient is aware and frustrated

Expressive/motor aphasia

199

Right frontal lobe lesion

Can’t add emotional tone

200

Lesion in left temporal lobe

Fluent, receptive, sensory aphasia

201

Can’t understand what is said
May/maynnot be able to read
Misusing words
Unaware of their defect

Receptive/fluent/sensory aphasia

202

Receptive aphasia artery lesion

Middle cerebral artery

203

Lesion in left parietal lobe

Gerstmann syndrome (angular gyrus)

204

Can’t understand what is written (alexia)
Finger agnosia
Right-to-left disorientation
Acalculia

Gerstmann syndrome

205

Lesion of arcuate fasciculus

Conduction aphasia

206

Can’t count backwards 10-1
Can’t repeat words
Aware and frustrated

Conduction aphasia

207

Right parietal lobe lesion

Asomatognosia

208

Asomatognosia

Unilateral neglect (unaware of left side of the body)

209

What connects both hemispheres

Corpus callouses

210

Lesion of corpus callosus Artery

Anterior cerebral Artery

211

Can’t move by command the left arm

Transcortical apraxia
Lesion in corpus callosum

212

What region of internal capsule is highly susceptible in lacunar stroke

Genu and posterior limb

213

Genu lesion

Contralateral lower face (corticobulbar axons)

214

Posterior limb lesion

(Corticospinal fibers)
Complete contralateral upper and lower limb spastic weakness
(Thalamic fibers)
Complete face and contralateral body anesthesia

215

Lesion in anterior cerebral artery

Contralateral spastic paralysis and anesthesia of lower limb

216

Cause of kluver-bercy syndrome

Bilateral watershed strokes

217

Anterograde amnesia
Placidity
Hypersexuality
Psychic blindness
Increases oral exploratory behavior
Hypermetamorphosis

Kluver-Bercy syndrome

218

Jaw weakness
Loss of facial sensation

Trigeminal lesion at pons

219

Weakness of vertical gaze
Argyll Robertson pupil
Increased intracranial pressure

Parinaud syndrome

220

Motor deficits in vascular problem in primary motor cortex

Contralateral lower limb

221

Aphasia
Neglect
Contralateral hemiparesis
Homonymous hemianopsia

Middle cerebral artery stroke