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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (129):
1

Glucose transport for fat, skeletal muscle

GLUT 4

2

In osmosis the water goes...

Higher to lower concentration

3

The water diffuses

Towards the higher osmolarity

4

Content of Basic metabolic panel

Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Bicarbonate
BUN
Creatinin
Glucose

5

Osmolar gap

Difference between measured and estimated osmolarity

6

Estimated osmolarity equation




2Na + Glucose/18 + BUN/2.8

7

Normal range osmolarity

290

8

Causes of increased osmolar gap

Ethanol, methanol, mannitol

9

Hormones in volume regulation

Aldosterone
ADH

10

Renin regulating factors

Perfusion pressure to kidney
Sympathetic stimulation to kidney
Sodium delivery to the macula densa

11

Aldosterone regulating factors

Angiotensin II
Plasma potassium

12

Aldosterone function

Sodium retention

13

ADH regulating factors

Plasma osmolarity
Blood volume/pressure

14

ADH function

Water retention

15

First sign of cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Orthopnea

16

Signs of non cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Severe dyspnea of rapid inset, hypoxemia, respiratory failure

17

NMDA is important for

Memory and transducing

18

Blocks NMDA channel

PCP
Ketamine

19

Depolarization

Membrane potential moves toward 0

20

Hyperpolarization

Membrane potential becomes more negative

21

Hyperkalemia

Depolarizers

22

Hypokalemia

Hyperpolarizes

23

Blocks Na/K ATPase

Digoxin

24

Blocks fast sodium channel

Extracelular Calcium
Lidocaine
Tedrotoxin/ batrachrotoxin

25

Low extracelular calcium

Hyperexcitable

26

High extracelular calcium

Hypoexcitable

27

Key ion in action potential

K

28

Blocks K channels cause

Delay repolarization

29

Who blocks K channels

4 aminopyridine
3,4 diaminopyridine

30

Absolute refractory period

Second potential can’t be produced

31

Relative refractory period

Second AP can be produced if a strong enough stimulus is provided

32

Primary factors of conduction velocity

Cell diameter
Myelination

33

If block Acetylcholinesterase

Sustained depolarization

34

Non depolarizing nicotinic blockers

Rocuronium
Atracuronium

35

Depolarizing nicotinic blocker

Succinylcholine

36

Autonomic ganglia nicotinic blockers

Hexamethonium
Mecamylomine

37

Muscarinic antagonist

Atropine
Scopolamine

38

Muscarinic agonist

Bethanechol
Pilocarpine

39

Excitatory receptors

Nicotinic
Non NMDA
NMDA

40

Inhibitory receptors

GABA
Glycine

41

Who interacts with GABA

Benzodiazepine
Barbiturates

42

Where glycine receptors are found

Spinal cords

43

Who blocks glycine receptors

Tetanus toxin

44

Weakness
Ataxia
Hyporreflexia
Paralysis
Sensory deficits

Hypo excitability

45

Lambert-Eaton

pre synaptic Ca block (antibody)

46

Lambert-Eaton treatment

3,4diaminopyridine

47

Hyperreflexia
Spasms
Fasciculations
Tetany
Tremors
Paresthesias
Convulsions

Hyper excitability

48

Organophosphates

Blocks AchE

49

EKG alteration in delay depolarization

Long QT

50

QRS phase

0

51

Phase 0

Opens fast Na

52

Class I anti arrythmics

1A: quinidine, procainamine
1B: lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide
1C: flecainide

53

Phase 1

Inactivation sodium channel

54

ST segment phase

2

55

T wave phase

3

56

Blocks fast Na channels

Class I anti arrythmics

57

Phase 2

Opens Ca channel

58

Phase 3

Repolarization
Ca channels close

59

Class III anti arrythmics

Amiodarone
Sotalol

60

Class III anti arrythmics interfere in which phase

3

61

Phase 4

Rest
Ik1 opens

62

Delays in repolarization causes

Torsades de pointes

63

Class II anti arrythmics

Propanolol
Esmolol

64

Class IV anti arrythmics

Verapamil
Diltiazem

65

Sympathetic effects

Increase cAMP
Open Ca channels

66

Parasympathetic effects

Decrease cAMP
Opens K channels

67

P wave

Atrial depolarization

68

PR segment

AV node delay

69

QRS

Ventricular depolarization

70

T wave

Ventricular repolarization

71

Each small box in EKG

0,04 s
0,5 mV

72

Each big box in EKG

0,2s

73

EKG

1. Rhythm
2. Heart rate
3. Quantitate PR interval
4. Mean electrical axis (MEA)

74

Left axis deviation

Enlargement of left ventricle

75

Right axis deviation

Enlargement of right ventricle (pulmonary stenosis)

76

Enlargement of PR interval

First degree heart block

77

Progressive prolongation of PR until ventricular beat is missed

Mobitz I
Wenkbach

78

Unsteady rhythm
PR interval fixed

Mobitz II

79

Steady rhythm
Show heart rate
Complete dissociation between P wave and QRS

Third degree heart block

80

Steady rhythm
Saw tooth

Atrial flutter

81

Unsteady rhythm
No P wave

Atrial fibrillation

82

Short PR interval

Delta wave

83

Delta wave

Wolf parkinson white

84

Normal PR interval

3-5 boxes
0,12-0,2s

85

ST elevation

Transmural infarction
Prinzmetal angina

86

ST depression

Subendocardial ischemia
Classic angina

87

Hyperkalemia in EKG

spike T waves
Short QT

88

Hypokalemia EKG

U wave (after T wave)
Long QT

89

Covers binding sites of sarcomere

Tropomyosin

90

Binding site for myosin

Actin

91

McArdle (type V)

Glycogen phosphorylase enzyme deficiency
Can’t generated sufficient ATP

92

ATPase that pumps Ca from cytosol to SR

SERCA

93

What can cause malignant hyperthermia

Succinylcholine
Halothane

94

What is malignat hyperthermia

Genetic disorder in ryanodine

95

Treatment of malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

96

Motor unit

Alfa motor neuron + fibers innervated

97

Dysfunction in titin can lead to

Cardiomyopathy

98

Skeletal preload

Load before contraction

99

Skeletal preload generates

Passive tension

100

More force than after load

Isotonic contraction

101

Unable to generates more force than afterload

Isometric contraction

102

Passive tension is produced by

Preload

103

Where we find white muscle

Ocular, leg muscle of sprinter

104

Where we find red muscle

Postural

105

Red muscle is good at

Endurance

106

How to stop a contraction

Block
- AP in motor neuron
- transmitter release
- nicotinic receptor
- Ca efflux from SR

107

Increase heart contractility

NE/E
Beta 1 agonist (dobutamine, isoproterenol
Inotrops (digoxin)

108

Normal ejection fraction

> 55%

109

What increase afterload

Hypertension
Systemic vascular resistance
Aortic stenosis

110

What decrease the preload

Hemorrhage, dehydration, nitroglicerin, standing upright p

111

Causes of dilated cardiomyopathy

Idiopathic
Alcohol
Cocaine
Chagas
Wet Beriberi
Pregnancy

112

Causes of restricted cardiomyopathy

Amyloidosis
Sarcoidosis
Hemochromatosis
Endomyocardial fibrosis
Hypereosinophilic disease

113

What can cause sudden death in young athletes

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

114

Which drugs cause vasoconstriction

Alfa 1 agonists
NE releasers
Reuptake inhibitors

115

Alfa 1 agonists

Phenylephrine
Methoxamine

116

NE releasers

Tyramine
Amphetamines
Ephedrine

117

Reuptake inhibitors

Cocaine
Tricyclic antidepressives

118

Which drugs cause vasodilatation

NO
Alfa blockers
Alfa 1 blockers
Ca blockers
K channels

119

NO

Hydralazine
Nitroprusside

120

Alfa blockers

Phentolamine
Phenoxybenzamine

121

Alfa 1 blockers

Prazosin
Terazosin

122

Ca blockers

Nifedipine
Nicardipine
Amlodipine

123

K channel blockers

Minoxidil
Diazoxide

124

4 factors that determine cardiac output

Heart rate
Contractility
afterload
Preload

125

Where are the temperature sensors

Anterior hypothalamus

126

4 phases of cardiac cycle

Isovolumetric contraction
Ejection
Isovolumetric relaxation
Filling

127

Dicrotic notch

Closure of the aortic valve

128

S1

Closing of AV valves

129

S2

Closing of aortic pulmonic valves