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Flashcards in Non-mammals Deck (28)
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1

What were the recommended best practices for euthanasia of zebra finches?

Intacoelomic administration of sodium pentobarbital in a well-restrained bird, or CO2 administration at high displacement rate (80%)

2

Which stress hormone was measured in zebrafish, and what is the significance?

Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in humans (mice secrete corticosterone).

3

Describe the zebrafish acute and chronic stress leukograms.

Acute - Neutrophilic leukocytosis with relative monocytosis and lymphopenia. Chronic - Relative monocytosis and lymphopenia with no neutrophilia.

4

How did altering omega3:omega6 fatty acids affect body fat and inflammation in zebrafish?

increasing proportion of omega6 fatty acids resulted in increased weight in females, but not increased totally body fat; males showed no difference. Expression of inflammatory response genes was variable.

5

Which sampling method is most consistently reliable for detecting the following zebrafish pathogens? Mycobacterium spp. Pseudocapillaria tomentosa Pseudoloma neurophilia

Mycobacterium spp. - environmental (membrane filter, detritus) Pseudocapillaria tomentosa - detritus, feces Pseudoloma neurophilia - no method was consistently reliable.

6

How are adult zebrafish affected behaviorally by MS-222 anesthesia followed by fin clipping?

1 hour after anesthesia, adult zebrafish display increased latency to normalize position, increased freezing, and longer duration of freezing, but these parameters return to normal within 6 hours.

7

What were the reasons lidocaine was proposed as an alternative to MS-222 for euthanizing zebrafish? What caveats did the authors include?

faster time to loss of opercular movement and righting reflex, less aversive behaviors displayed. Neither MS-222 nor lidocaine were effective at euthanizing larvae <16 hpf; different genotypes may also react differently.

8

What were the effects of environmental enrichment on the fertility and fecundity of zebrafish?

Mean egg count was greater for fish exposed to simulated grass than those exposed to leaves or no enrichment.

9

What were the reasons clove oil was proposed as an alternative to MS-222 for euthanizing zebrafish?

Similar time to death lower cortisol levels higher serum volume collected

10

What was the effect of habitat complexity on pair housing zebrafish?

adding enrichment did not decrease cortisol levels but did decrease aggression.

11

What percent of larval zebrafish (14 hpf) recovered after immersion in 900 mg/L MS-22?

100%

12

Which method of euthanasia of larval zebrafish (14 hpf) resulted in the lowest recovery rate?

ice bath

13

Which presurgical skin preparation was associated with epidermal degeneration, necrosis, and clinical illness?

chlorhexidine

14

Masson trichrome stain is used to identify what type of tissue? What color is the stained tissue?

Collagen - stains blue

15

Verhoeff-van Gieson stain is used to identify what type of tissue? What color is the stained tissue?

Elastin - stains black Collagen stains magenta

16

Describe acute and chronic sequalae of GBD

acute - intestinal infarction, sudden death chronic - decreased oocyte and egg production

17

What novel mite species were recently identified in Taeniopygia guttata?

Megninialges spp.

Neocheyletiella parvisetosa

18

Amyloidosis was recently described in Taeniopygia guttata.  What amyloid protein was detected, and what organs were most affected?

Amyloid A

Liver, spleen, kidney

19

What is the genus and species of the green anole, and what is this species a model for?

Anolis carolinensis

locomotor performance

20

What is the scientific name of the rainbow trout?

Oncorhynchus mykiss

21

Which NSAIDs were evaluated for safety in Onycorhyncus mykiss?

ketoprofen, ketorolac, flunixin

22

NSAIDs exert their analgesic actions by actin on what metabolic pathway?

they inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, thereby preventing conversion of arachadonic acid into pro-inflammatory and pyrogenic prostaglandins. 

23

How has Gobiocypris rarus been used in biomedical research?

As s a test organism for chemical toxicity, expecially environmental pollutants.

24

What is the scientific name of the goldfish?

Carassius auratus

25

26

How was brief exposure of Onycorhynchus mykiss to metemodate and MS-222 prior to euthanasia affect the contractile properties of isolated and saline rinsed myocardial tissue?

no differences compared to saline only control

27

How was Succinea putris used as a research model?

It was a model to develop best practices for euthanasia of an endangered snails.   

28

What was determined to be the an effective and humane technique for euthanizing Succinea putris?

2-step method similar to methods described for aquatic invertebrates - immersion in ethanol, followed by immersion in a tissue preserving solution.