What is the greatest difference between the rat venous system compared to other animals?
Presence of a left cranial vena cava
Morphology of cardiac veins has been described in which animals?
Mice, porcupines, North American beaver, and rabbit
The highest variability in the rat heart was found where?
The right ventricle
What animal has a similar configuration of veins in the heart when compared to the rat?
Coronary venous drainage consistently involved what veins?
Left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins
The provision of breeding mice with extra nesting material, such as cotton squares or paper tissue: a. It is recommended to stimulate foraging b. It is not recommended in high-selected lines c. Could lead to a reduction of animals required for research d. All sentences above are true
c. Could lead to a reduction of animals required for research
When paper tissues is given as nesting material to weaned BALB/c and C57BL mice: a. Body weight is higher and feed consumption is lower compared with the control group b. Body weight is lower and feed consumption is higher compared with the control group c. Body weight and feed consumption are higher compared with the control group d. Body weight and feed consumption are lower compared with the control group
Body weight is higher and feed consumption is lower compared with the control group
What is the minimal light intensity that could disrupt circadian rhythm? a. 0.2 lx b. 2 lx c. 20 lx d. 200 lx
a. 0.2 lx
What is the wave length of red safe light? a. 100 nm b. 200 nm c. 300 nm d. 600 nm
d. 600 nm
Melatonin is secreted by a. Pituitary gland b. Hypothalamus c. Pineal gland d. Adrenal gland
c. Pineal gland
Chronic use of low-intensity red light exposure at night from a common safelight was found to disrupt the circadian organization of which types of parameters? a. neuroendocrine b. metabolic c. physiologic d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which rat strain is used to study diabetes insipidus due to a deficit of vasopressin?
Which species of mouse pinworm has no spicule or gubernaculum and has prominent broad cervical alae?
What is the minimum time a rhesus macaque should be allowed to habituate to an undershirt and primate jacket before an indwelling catheter is implanted? a. 12 hours b. 7 days c. 14 days d. 2 days
d. 2 days
Just prior to being started on a pK study, a rhesus macaque recently fitted with a primate jacket is observed to be biting the jacket, saluting, and self-biting. What is the appropriate plan of action for this animal? a. Sedate the animal, remove the jacket, and unassign the animal from the proposed pK study b. Administer psychoactive pharmaceuticals to help the animal tolerate the jacket c. Do nothing. The animal will eventually habituate to the jacket d. Provide positive reinforcement training to help teach the animal to tolerate the jacket
a. Sedate the animal, remove the jacket, and unassign the animal from the proposed pK study
In a study, respondents showed a significant difference for questions related to: a. AWA b. AWR c. IACUC membership d. IACUC duties
d. IACUC duties
In a study, ATAR scores revealed a significant difference in attitudes towards animals in research for participants exposed to: a. AWA/AWR facts b. General animal research facts
a. AWA/AWR facts
According to Francisco et al. 2015, what is the maximum volume of blood appropriate to take from a 21 g mouse (survival procedure)? a. 0.1 mL b. 0.2 mL c. 0.3 mL d. 0.4 mL
c. 0.3 mL
Often incorrectly termed the “submandibular vein”, puncturing what vessel allows rapid blood collection from the cheek of a mouse? a. Cheek vein b. Facial vein c. Maxillofacial bundle d. Infraorbital bundle
b. Facial vein
Which of the following is correct? a. Facial vein bleeds in a mouse are safer if a lancet is used rather than a 21g needle b. Facial vein bleeds in a mouse are safer if a 21g needle is used rather than a lancet c. The use of a 21g needle and the use of a lancet are equally appropriate for facial vein bleeds d. Facial vein bleeds in mice should be avoided as other options such like the retroorbital bleed are safer
c. The use of a 21g needle and the use of a lancet are equally appropriate for facial vein bleeds
1. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals recommends that fish remain in eugenol solution for at least _____ mins after the cessation of opercular movements.
2. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals recommends maintaining zebrafish fry (age 4-7 days postfertilization) in ice-chilled water at least _____ min after the loss of opercular movement.
In a study examining MS-222, eugenol, and hypothermic shock for euthanizing zebrafish fry, which method resulted in 100% effectiveness?
What is the proper title of the 1959 book of Russell and Burch where the 3R’s are first presented: a. The Principles of the 3R’s in Research b. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique c. The Principles of Humane Experimental Research d. Humane Experimental Research Principles
b. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique
In Russell and Burch’s 1959 work, what term was the equivalent of distress to an animal?
Infliction of distress as a required, unavoidable and inherent component of particular research was described by Russell and Burch as:
Russell and Burch defined the refinement as :
a minimization of inhumanity or distress
Which document directly identifies that non-animal alternative methods "such as mathematical models, computer simulation, and in vitro biologic systems should be considered"? a. Animal Welfare Act Regulations b. US Principles c. PHS Policy d. The Guide
c. PHS Policy
Which documents structure how IACUCs address the 3Rs? a. AWA regulations b. The Guide c. PHS policy d. US Principles e. All of the above
e. All of the above
How often does the USDA expect that alternatives reviews will be conducted? a. Semiannually b. Annually c. Biannually d. At triennial de novo reviews
d. At triennial de novo reviews
In drug pharmacokinetic studies, what term describes the bias in the concentrations that arise due to difference between the hematocrit value of the sample and the standard curve used for quantification? a. RBC Effect b. Blood: plasma partitioning ratio c. Washout Period d. Hematocrit Effect
d. Hematocrit Effect
In drug pharmacokinetic studies, what is a method that can reduce the number of animals used, reduce variability due to collection of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics data from the same mouse, and reduce stress to mice due to reduced blood collection. a. Mandibular bleeding b. Dried Blood Spot technology c. Tail snip bleeding d. ELISA plasma concentrations
b. Dried Blood Spot technology
Identify components of systematic review:
a. Clearly formulated question b. Explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research c. Statistical methods (meta-analyses) d. Summary of results
What 3 primary standards does AAALAC utilize in its global assessments?
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals
Which method cannot be used to blood type cynomolgus macaques? a. Reverse hemagglutination test b. Forward hemagglutination test c. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis d. Immunohistochemistry
b. Forward hemagglutination test
Why can't the gold standard of blood typing in humans be applied to macaques?
Forward hemagglutination test relies of presence of ABO antigens on RBCs, which is lacking in macaques.
Which of the following is TRUE? a. Both hamsters and gerbils are social species b. Hamsters are solitary while gerbils are social species c. Hamsters are social while gerbils are solitary species d. Both hamsters and gerbils are solitary species
b. Hamsters are solitary while gerbils are social species
Hexamastix muris is a. An ectoparasite b. A virus c. A gram positive bacteria d. A protozoan parasite
d. A protozoan parasite
What anxiety-like behavior tests can you perform on zebra fish?
Novel-tank, light-dark, place-preference
The Laerdal SimNewB neonatal simulator was designed with the American Academy of Pediatrics to meet the training requirements of neonatal emergency medicine and resuscitation courses…. which 2 animal species might this simulator replace as models for training medical residents? a. Ferrets b. Puppies c. Kittens d. NHPs e. Undergraduate students in need of extra credit
a and c (ferrets and kittens)
What clinical condition has been reported to be associated with ingestion of topical anesthetics in a variety of lab animal spp and humans?
In a study that evaluated potential effects of using topical anesthetics or vapocooling with tail biopsy, which treatment group was associated with the best outcome? a. ethyl chloride b. Cetacaine c. isoflurane d. no agents
d. no agents
How did administration of buprenorphine affect anesthesia in a study involving rabbits?
it extended the length of anesthesia
Ketamine in rabbits a. Inhibits both the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems b. Stimulates both the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems c. Inhibits the parasympathetic and stimulates the sympathetic systems d. Stimulate the parasympathetic and inhibits the sympathetic systems
c. Inhibits the parasympathetic and stimulates the sympathetic systems
Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity, which happen in: a. 47% and 94% of HP–PA and 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves, respectively b. 94% and 47% of HP–PA and 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves, respectively c. 76% and 98% of HP–PA and 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves, respectively d. 98% and 76% of HP–PA and 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves, respectively
b. 94% and 47% of HP–PA and 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves, respectively
A recent study supported the use of the following means as a viable cost effective alternative to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries except: a. HP-PA disinfected latex gloves b. HP-PA disinfected nitrile gloves c. 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves d autoclaved nitrile gloves
c. 70% isopropyl disinfected gloves
What are the definitions of open-formula diet, closed-formula diet, fixed-formula diet, and constant nutrition diet?
Open-formula diets disclose the concentrations of all ingredients. Closed-formula diet – ingredients are listed, but the quantitative ingredients are not publicly available. Fixed-formula diets keep the quantitative formulation the same. Constant nutrition diet is the trademark of Purina. The concentrations of known nutrients remain constant, but the quantitative ingredient formulations can be varied without public disclosure.
Name two hematologic alterations observed in late pregnancy in AGM.
Increase in WBC; decrease in hemoglobin/hematocrit/RBC counts.
What environmental factors might change an animal’s body weight throughout the day?
The authors observed a higher false positive rate when baseline weights were obtained in the morning. This variation is probably due to nocturnal feeding, and the authors suggest that pregnancy status may be more reliably discriminated if weights are taken in the afternoon or evening.
___________ is the range of frequencies at which an object most readily vibrates and the range over which an animal may sense, respond to, and suffer adverse effects from vibration. a. Radio frequency range b. Resident frequency range c. Resonance frequency range d. Reporter frequency range
c. Resonance frequency range
In a study recently published which of the factors described below appears to influence alopecia in baboons independently of the housing system. a. Season b. Age c. Sex d. Group size e. All of them
What was the most common topic discussed by IACUC’s?
Pain or distress
What was the least common topic discussed by IACUC’s?
Alternatives to animal use and preliminary data
In a recent study, Listeria-associated abortion was associated with _______ in fertility and abortion rates when compared with the control groups. a. statistically significant increase b. statistically significant decrease c. statistically no different
c. statistically no different
All of the following are acute pain models used for analgesic testing in rodents except: a. Plantar incision b. Saline injection c. Formalin injection d. Capsaicin injection
b. Saline injection
Analgesic efficacy of firocoxib was considered a. greater than buprenorphine b. equivalent to buprenorphine c. less than buprenorphine d. ineffective
b. equivalent to buprenorphine
The primary action of tramadol is which of the following? a. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor b. GABA agonist c. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor d. More than one of the above are correct
d. More than one of the above are correct
Which statement is true regarding the effect of tramadol as the sole analgesic agent on female C57BL/6 mice post laparotomy-typhlectomy surgery? a. Tramadol at 20mg/kg is able to control pain as well as 80 mg/kg b. Tramadol is not adequate as a sole analgesic at 80mg/kg c. Tramadol is adequate to use in this situation but must be used for a minimum of 7 days post surgery d. Tramadol is adequate as a sole analgesic at 80mg/kg
d. Tramadol is adequate as a sole analgesic at 80mg/kg
Which statement is true regarding the effect of tramadol as the sole analgesic agent on male C57BL/6 mice post laparotomy-typhlectomy surgery? a. Tramadol at 20mg/kg is able to control pain b. Tramadol is not adequate as a sole analgesic c. Tramadol is adequate to use in this situation but must be used for a minimum of 7 days post surgery d. Tramadol is adequate as a sole analgesic at 80 mg/kg
b. Tramadol is not adequate as a sole analgesic
Which of the following was not found to be effective at any dose for acute and surgical pain in rats? a. buprenorphine b. carpofen c. acetaminophen d. ibuprofen
How well were mice that underwent MESA or PESA able to produce offspring after undergoing the procedure?
all treated males able to produce offspring, with mean mating period and mean litter size not differing significantly from controls (non-surgical mice)
What was the effect of mineralized red algae supplement on incidence of ulcerative dermatitis?
decreased in female mice, but not in male (B6)
Autoclaving for shorter duration at high temperature has more negative effects on nutrient values than autoclaving for longer duration at shorter temperature. (True or False)
An increased number of wounds does not imply an increased severity.
F. Researchers showed that increased wound number did imply increased severity.
How did DCV perform with regard to an indoor facility housing rhesus macaques?
DCV provided more consistent room temperatures. CO2, small particulates, and TVOC levels had variable responses between systems but at no point did they exceed OSHA recommendations
True or False. BISmean and response TP are acceptable for assessing DOA in piglets maintained under isoflurane anesthesia.
True or False. HR and noninvasive BP changes are not clinically reliable indicators of anesthetic depth when assessed immediately after a peripherally applied compressive force as an indicator stimulus
What kind of antimicrobial agent is ceftiofur crystalline free acid? a. Concentration dependent first generation cephalosporin b. Time dependent first generation cephalosporin c. Concentration dependent third generation cephalosporin d. Time dependent third generation cephalosporin
d. Time dependent third generation cephalosporin
A recent study examined the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) in rhesus macaques as an option for a long-term, single injection antibiotic. Which is true? a. CCFA maintained plasma concentration above the swine MIC90 of 0.2 mcg/ml for 7 days when dosed at 5 mg/kg SQ b. CCFA maintained plasma concentration above the swine MIC90 of 0.2 mcg/ml for 7 days when dosed at 20 mg/kg SQ c. CCFA was associated with GI distress and injection site reactions and is not recommended for long term antibiotic therapy when given at a dose of 20 mg/kg SQ d. CCFA is a first generation cephalosporin and is not appropriate for use in treating wounds caused by conspecific aggression
b. CCFA maintained plasma concentration above the swine MIC90 of 0.2 mcg/ml for 7 days when dosed at 20 mg/kg SQ
Benefits of the use of clove oil for euthanasia, include: a. Reduced serum cortisol levels b. Decreased serum recovery c. Inexpensive d. a and c e. All of the above
d. a and c
What is the normal “rule of thumb” that is commonly applied at biomedical institutions for blood sampling volume?
10%-10% rule - maximum sample allowed is 10% of the BV and the BV is estimated as 10% body weight (or 100 ml/kg)
What were the 2 tracer used for a study of blood volume measurement in rhesus macaques?
FITC-labeled hydroxylethyl starch (FITC-HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin (125I-RhSA). FITC-HES method provided a safer and more practical means
1. What was the earliest day of pregnancy that maternal body weight be used to effectively predict litter size? a. 3 b. 5 c. 9 d. 15
c. 9 (BALB/cJ mice), day 11 (Swiss Webster), or day 14 (C57BL/6J)
As of 1978, which country no longer allows exportation of Rhesus macaques?
India; macaques imported into the United States since 1978 have been primarily from China. This effectively makes breeding colonies in the United States of Indian Rhesus macaques a closed population of semi-isolated groups.
What is kinship coefficient?
measures the probability that alleles drawn at random from the same locus in each of 2 subjects will be identical by descent.
Increases in temperature and activity around cage changes happen a. 12 h after the change b. 12 h before and after the change c. 24 h before and after the change d. There are no changes
b. 12 h before and after the change
Basal energy expenditure in a mice housed at 22º with regards to another one housed at 30ºC is a. 75% higher b. 45% higher c. 15% higher d. The same
b. 45% higher
According to this study, which of the following parameters showed a significant increase among mice in resource-supplemented environments? a. Lymphocyte subsets b. Fecal corticoid metabolite levels c. Response to LPS injection d. Dendritic spine length or density e. Brain weight:body weight ratios
e. Brain weight:body weight ratios
According to this study, consistent use of simple environmental resources had which combination of outcomes for group-housed male and group-housed female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice? a. Positive long-term effect on behavioral wellbeing, significant affect on physiology and neuroanatomy b. Negative long-term effect on behavioral wellbeing, significant affect on physiology and neuroanatomy c. Positive long-term effect on behavioral wellbeing, minimal affect on physiology and neuroanatomy d. Negative long-term effect on behavioral wellbeing, minimal affect on physiology and neuroanatomy
c. Positive long-term effect on behavioral wellbeing, minimal affect on physiology and neuroanatomy
Severe hemophilia A was observed in an Old English Sheep Dog with what mutation?
C to T transition that created a premature stop codon in Factor VIII, analogous to Arg583 mutation in humans
How did proestrus and estrus influence glucose metabolism in mongrel dogs?
Whole body glucose dispersal is impaired, but the response of the liver to hyperinsulinemia appears to be preserved.
What breed of dog may serve as a model for glycogen storage disease type IIIA?
Curly coat retriever
What stain is used to identify glycogen on histology?
Periodic acid-Schiff (Richardson PAS in this article)
What are the primary tissues affected by glycogen storage disease?
Liver, heart, skeletal muscle
In dogs with induced ICH, what did Prussian blue stain for, and what was the significance?
Prussian blue stains for the presence of hemosiderin, formed in macrophages after they phagocytize RBCs.
How were behavioral and physiologic parameters of Laborador retrievers affected by telemetry vests in open-field testing?
1. Mean anxiety score was significantly lower during the middle test phase in dogs wearing vests. 2. Vest wearing dogs had an overall significantly lower heart rate than non-vest wearing dogs.
Describe ceftiofur crystalline-free acid
3rd generation cephalosporin - beta-lactam antibiotic that interferes with cell wall synthesis (bacteriocidal) Extended release formulation approved for use in swine
What were the Newcastle Reports? When were they released?
provided a consensus opinion regarding CO2 euthanasia.