Non-Medical CNS Drugs Flashcards Preview

Unit 3: Pharm (drugs only) > Non-Medical CNS Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Non-Medical CNS Drugs Deck (34):
1

Alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and inhalants are all agonists of what receptor?

GABA-A

2

Name the substance associated with each "alcohol": methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol.

Methyl alcohol = windshield washer antifreeze
Ethylene glycol = automotive antifreeze
Isopropyl alcohol = rubbing alcohol

3

Methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol can all cause acidosis and CNS problems. Give another effect associated with poisoning by each substance.

Methyl alcohol: blindness
Ethylene glycol: nephrotoxicity
Isopropyl alcohol: gastritis

4

What enzyme does fomepizole inhibit, that makes it ideal for treating methyl alcohol and ethylene glycol poisoning? What is an alternative antidote?

Alcohol dehydrogenase; could also give ethyl alcohol (ex. vodka) and bicarbonate

5

What enzyme does disulfiram (Antabuse) inhibit, that makes it ideal for ethanol aversion therapy? What molecule accumulates in the body?

Aldehyde dehydrogenase; acetaldehyde

6

N-acetylcysteine is used to treat what kind of overdose? What molecule does it regenerate (by supplying sulfhydryl groups) in order to improve microcirculation and decrease inflammation?

Acetominophen overdose; regenerates glutathione

7

What receptor does flunitrazepam act on, and is it an agonist or antagonist? What is the common name for this drug?

GABA-A agonist; "roofies" or date rape drug

8

What is the major neurotransmitter that is upregulated by cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine?

Dopamine

9

Adderall, Ritalin, Benzedrine, and Desoxyn are all derivatives/analogs of what CNS stimulant?

Amphetamine

10

Ephedrine, cathinone, and MDMA are all derivatives/analogs of what CNS stimulant?

Amphetamine

11

Give the molecular action for cocaine, including the 3 neurotransmitters it affects.

Inhibits reuptake of dopamine, NE, and 5HT

12

Give the molecular action for the amphetamines, including the 3 neurotransmitters they affect.

Release of DA, NE, and 5HT from nerve terminals (indirect sympathomimetic effect)

13

Methyxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine are all related to what CNS stimulant, an antagonist at adenosine "purinergic" receptors?

Caffeine

14

Theophylline, a methyxanthine derivative, is used to treat what disease?

Asthma (relieves bronchoconstriction and reduces inflammation)

15

What is the difference between cocaine and "crack"? Give 3 side effects that can be caused by either substance.

"Cocaine" actually refers to cocaine HCl, while "crack" refers to the free base; can cause sympathetic effects, paranoia, and aggression

16

Amphetamine is approved to treat what 2 diseases?

ADHD and narcolepsy

17

Not that this really matters, but "speedball" refers to a combo of what 2 drugs?

Cocaine and heroin

18

Nicotine activates what receptors in what part of the brain, and what neurotransmitter is released as a result?

nACh receptors in the VTA (ventral tegmental area), causing DA release

19

What receptors in the brain does heroin affect, and is it an agonist or antagonist?

Mu opioid receptor agonist

20

What receptors in the brain does nalmefene affect, and is it an agonist or antagonist?

Mu opioid receptor antagonist (used to treat alcoholism)

21

Mescaline and psilocybin share cross tolerance with what "model hallucinogen"?

LSD

22

LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin all activate what receptors in what part of the brain, and what neurotransmitter is released as a result?

5HT-2a receptors in the Raphe nucleus, causing dopamine release (by decreasing Raphe inhibition of DA release)

23

What family of drugs acts on the CB1 and CB2 receptors, and what kind of receptors are these?

Marijuana / cannabis / THC drugs; CB1 and CB2 are the cannabinoid GPCRs

24

Name the endogenous cannabinoid that is believe to regulate energy balance, lipid and glucose metabolism, and food intake via CB1 receptors.

Anandamide

25

Dronabinol and nabilone are synthetic versions of what recreational drug? What are 3 therapeutic uses for these drugs?

Marijuana; used for anti-emesis, anti-nausea, and anti-anorexia

26

What "schedule" are the following drugs rated: LSD, marijuana, dronabinol, nabilone

Schedule I: LSD and marijuana
Schedule II: nabilone
Schedule III: dronabinol

27

Phencyclidine/PCP is what kind of an anesthetic? What 2 neuroreceptors does it affect and is it an agonist or antagonist at each?

Dissociative anesthetic
NMDA receptor antagonist, mu opioid receptor agonist

28

Comparing MDMA vs. MPTP: which one is "China white" and which is "Ecstasy"? What chemical is each one derived from?

MDMA = Ecstasy, derived from amphetamine
MPTP = China White, fentanyl derivative

29

Comparing MDMA vs. MPTP: which one causes side effects of dehydration, hyperthermia, hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias, and paranoia?

MDMA (MPTP causes full-blown Parkinson's due to substantia nigra damage)

30

What drug acts like a combination of amphetamine, LSD, and fluoxetine (Prozac)?

MDMA (Ecstasy)

31

Comparing LSD vs. PCP: patients on which drug are susceptible to suggestion and can be "talked down" from their anxiety? How should patients on the other drug be treated?

LSD responds to talking; PCP required isolation and diazepam (or haloperidol) administration

32

Comparing LSD vs. PCP: which one would you rather overdose on?

LSD (there are no recorded human overdose deaths)

33

What are 2 therapeutic uses for cocaine?

Topical anesthetic for the URT, and combined vasoconstriction + local anesthetic

34

Aliphatic nitrites are an inhalant that can cause what therapeutic effect in the body, to treat what disease?

Vasodilation, which treats angina (the Viagra-like effects aren't really "therapeutic")