Flashcards in Non-Medical CNS Drugs Deck (34):
Alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and inhalants are all agonists of what receptor?
Name the substance associated with each "alcohol": methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol.
Methyl alcohol = windshield washer antifreeze
Ethylene glycol = automotive antifreeze
Isopropyl alcohol = rubbing alcohol
Methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol can all cause acidosis and CNS problems. Give another effect associated with poisoning by each substance.
Methyl alcohol: blindness
Ethylene glycol: nephrotoxicity
Isopropyl alcohol: gastritis
What enzyme does fomepizole inhibit, that makes it ideal for treating methyl alcohol and ethylene glycol poisoning? What is an alternative antidote?
Alcohol dehydrogenase; could also give ethyl alcohol (ex. vodka) and bicarbonate
What enzyme does disulfiram (Antabuse) inhibit, that makes it ideal for ethanol aversion therapy? What molecule accumulates in the body?
Aldehyde dehydrogenase; acetaldehyde
N-acetylcysteine is used to treat what kind of overdose? What molecule does it regenerate (by supplying sulfhydryl groups) in order to improve microcirculation and decrease inflammation?
Acetominophen overdose; regenerates glutathione
What receptor does flunitrazepam act on, and is it an agonist or antagonist? What is the common name for this drug?
GABA-A agonist; "roofies" or date rape drug
What is the major neurotransmitter that is upregulated by cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine?
Adderall, Ritalin, Benzedrine, and Desoxyn are all derivatives/analogs of what CNS stimulant?
Ephedrine, cathinone, and MDMA are all derivatives/analogs of what CNS stimulant?
Give the molecular action for cocaine, including the 3 neurotransmitters it affects.
Inhibits reuptake of dopamine, NE, and 5HT
Give the molecular action for the amphetamines, including the 3 neurotransmitters they affect.
Release of DA, NE, and 5HT from nerve terminals (indirect sympathomimetic effect)
Methyxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine are all related to what CNS stimulant, an antagonist at adenosine "purinergic" receptors?
Theophylline, a methyxanthine derivative, is used to treat what disease?
Asthma (relieves bronchoconstriction and reduces inflammation)
What is the difference between cocaine and "crack"? Give 3 side effects that can be caused by either substance.
"Cocaine" actually refers to cocaine HCl, while "crack" refers to the free base; can cause sympathetic effects, paranoia, and aggression
Amphetamine is approved to treat what 2 diseases?
ADHD and narcolepsy
Not that this really matters, but "speedball" refers to a combo of what 2 drugs?
Cocaine and heroin
Nicotine activates what receptors in what part of the brain, and what neurotransmitter is released as a result?
nACh receptors in the VTA (ventral tegmental area), causing DA release
What receptors in the brain does heroin affect, and is it an agonist or antagonist?
Mu opioid receptor agonist
What receptors in the brain does nalmefene affect, and is it an agonist or antagonist?
Mu opioid receptor antagonist (used to treat alcoholism)
Mescaline and psilocybin share cross tolerance with what "model hallucinogen"?
LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin all activate what receptors in what part of the brain, and what neurotransmitter is released as a result?
5HT-2a receptors in the Raphe nucleus, causing dopamine release (by decreasing Raphe inhibition of DA release)
What family of drugs acts on the CB1 and CB2 receptors, and what kind of receptors are these?
Marijuana / cannabis / THC drugs; CB1 and CB2 are the cannabinoid GPCRs
Name the endogenous cannabinoid that is believe to regulate energy balance, lipid and glucose metabolism, and food intake via CB1 receptors.
Dronabinol and nabilone are synthetic versions of what recreational drug? What are 3 therapeutic uses for these drugs?
Marijuana; used for anti-emesis, anti-nausea, and anti-anorexia
What "schedule" are the following drugs rated: LSD, marijuana, dronabinol, nabilone
Schedule I: LSD and marijuana
Schedule II: nabilone
Schedule III: dronabinol
Phencyclidine/PCP is what kind of an anesthetic? What 2 neuroreceptors does it affect and is it an agonist or antagonist at each?
NMDA receptor antagonist, mu opioid receptor agonist
Comparing MDMA vs. MPTP: which one is "China white" and which is "Ecstasy"? What chemical is each one derived from?
MDMA = Ecstasy, derived from amphetamine
MPTP = China White, fentanyl derivative
Comparing MDMA vs. MPTP: which one causes side effects of dehydration, hyperthermia, hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias, and paranoia?
MDMA (MPTP causes full-blown Parkinson's due to substantia nigra damage)
What drug acts like a combination of amphetamine, LSD, and fluoxetine (Prozac)?
Comparing LSD vs. PCP: patients on which drug are susceptible to suggestion and can be "talked down" from their anxiety? How should patients on the other drug be treated?
LSD responds to talking; PCP required isolation and diazepam (or haloperidol) administration
Comparing LSD vs. PCP: which one would you rather overdose on?
LSD (there are no recorded human overdose deaths)
What are 2 therapeutic uses for cocaine?
Topical anesthetic for the URT, and combined vasoconstriction + local anesthetic