Non-Prescription Treatment Options Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Non-Prescription Treatment Options Deck (55)
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1
Q

Why Non-Prescription Options?

A
  • Vets and owners are actively seeking prescription-free solutions to help minimize inappropriate behavior, phobia, fear, and anxiety seen in out pets
  • Fear Free movement is creating an increased demand for prescription-free supplements
  • Supplements can aid in training and behavior modification therapy by facilitating a calm and receptive attitude
2
Q

Non-Prescription Options

A
  • Neutraceuticals
  • Therapeutic Diets
  • external Devices/Garments
  • Pheromones
  • Essential oils/Aromatherapy
  • Music
  • Desensitization via recordings
  • Massage, Acupressure and Acupuncture
  • Environmental manipulation and enrichment
3
Q

Neutraceuticals

A
  • Natral, bioactive chemical compounds that have health-promoting, diesease preventing or general medicinl properties
    • Vitamins
    • Amino Acids
    • Minerals
    • Herbal or other botanical supplements
    • Certain animal products
  • Includes Functional foods
    • foods that tout a specific health benefit based on their ingredients
4
Q

Neutraceuticals in the US

A
  • The term “nutraceutical” products are regulated as:
    • Drugs
    • Food ingredients
    • Dietary supplements
  • Not defined the same in different countries
    • usually defined as a product isolated from foods that is sold in medicinal forms, but not associted with food
5
Q

Neutraceutical Regulation

A
  • No patent protection
  • Can be used to cure or prevent disease
    • ONLY pharmaceutical compounds have government sanction
  • FDA regulates
    • Nutraceutical are under a different set of regulations compared to food or drug products
  • Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) 1994:
    • It is the manufacturer’s responsibility to ensure safety of nutraceutical before its marketed
  • Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) regulation Goals:
    • Safety and labeling
    • less emphasis on product clsims and intended use
6
Q

FDA

A
  • Authorized to take action against any unsafe product after it reaches market
7
Q

Manufacturers Responsibility

A
  • Have to make sure that the information on the product label is truthful and not misleading
  • NOT obligated to register their poductswith the FDA NOR get FDA approval before producing or selling nutraceuticals
8
Q

Quotes From Fear Free

A
  • In the mind of the consumer they are different because they are ‘natura’ and that is something that a lot of people are looking for
  • “Natural” doesn’t necessarily equal “safe”, the naural world is chock-full of poisonous substances. In some cases, clients may simply need some reassurance about the drug options
  • When they think of a supplement, they don’t think it’s goint to affect their animals as strongly as they perceive a behavioral drug does
  • What I tell my clients and veterinarians is, we try to use supplements from companies we trust - as much as you can trust a company….We try to use supplements made by pharmaceutical companies. Its not that I love pharmaceutical compnies, but I can hold someone responsible
  • Whatever your source, read the research and evaluate the evidence yourself. Given the lack of regulation, you first need to know if a product has been properly tested for safety in dogs and cats..
9
Q

Evaluating Nutraceuticals

according to Fear Free

A
  • Species used in the study
    • was the research on dogs/cats or rats/mice
  • Condition studied
    • If a study was narrowly focused on some aspect, for example separation anxiety, it may not work on other types of anxiety
  • What was evaluated
    • Acutal behavior or physical measurements such as stress hormones
      • both types have Pros and Cons
10
Q

Nutraceuticals for Behavior Modification

A
  • Rescue Remedy
  • Harmonease
  • Anxiety TFLN
  • Anxitane
  • Solliquin
  • Composure and Composure Pro
  • Hemp/CBD products
  • Melatonin
11
Q

Rescue Remedy Pets

A
  • A blend of 5of the 38 Bach Original Flower Remedies
  • Add 4 drops of rescue remedy to your pet’s food, water bowl, or on a treat. Repeat as needed. Can also be rubbed on the ears, nose, or paw
  • Dosage of Rescue Remedy Pet dose not depend on weight or type of animal. It depends on the situation of stress. It is not a sedative, so find the dosage that works best for you and your pet
12
Q

Harmonease (VPL)

A
  • Harmonease is a natrual proprietary blend of a patented extract of Magnolia officinalis and a proprietary extract of Phellodendron amurense
  • Phellodendron amurense demonstrated significant anti-stress effects in rodent tests
    • UNSAFE for pregnanc in people
  • Magnolia officinalis contians a mixture of honokiol and magnolol both of which have been identified as modulators of the GABAA receptors for activity to decrease stress
  • Dogs:
    • Up to 50 lbs: 1/2 tablet 1x day
    • Over 50 lbs: 1 tablet 1x day
13
Q

Anxxiety TFLN

Thunder, Fireworks, and Loud Noises

A
  • Ingredients:
    • Borate of Sodium - Washing soda
    • Rhododendron chrysanthum
    • Phosphorus
    • German Chamomile
    • Theridion curassavicum (Orange spider)
  • In acute cases, can give every 15 minutes, up to 4 doses
  • In chronic/long-term problems: 1 dose 3x daily
    • ofen started 5-7 days before anxiety causing situation
    • Once response seen reduce to 2x daily
  • If remedy is working well and dosing is not reduced, and aggravation of symptoms from overuse may occur
    • Stopping for 3 days will reverse symptoms, then treatment can befin again as if using for the first time, weaning down as mentioned abobe
14
Q

Anxitane

A
  • Contains pre L-Theanine, aka Suntheanine, an amino acid that acts neurologically to help keep dogs and cats calm, relaxed, and well-behaved
  • Fo optimal results, prescribe for at least 30 days for pets experiencing behavior changes in response to stress
  • Flavored chewable tablets are palatable fro dogsand cats and allow for easy administration and better compliance
  • All-natural nutritional supplement that is not-habit-forming
  • WARNING: Not intended for use in animals with severe phobias, separation anxiety or in animals with a known history of agression
15
Q

Zylkene

A
  • Bovine-sourced hydrolyzed milk protein
    • ​has calming properties
    • lactose-free
  • Helps balance reaction sin some situations
    • Travel, moving, adoption, grooming, meeting new people, loud noises, etc
  • Helps animals maintain normal and relaxed dispositions
  • May also open pets’ receptivity to behavior modification training
  • Capsules can be administered orally, or opened and added to a meal
  • Can be used daily or as needed
    • Shor-term: use 1-2 days before event/change
16
Q

Composure

A
  • A calming supplement to support relaxation in situations that cause nervousness, anxiety, or stress
  • Active Ingredients per Chew:
    • Thiamine (Vit B1): 134mg
      • affects CNS to help calm
    • Colostrum Calming Complex Biopeptide Blend 22mg
      • supports stress reduction and cognitive function
    • L-Theanine 21mg
      • helps body produce other AA to being neurotransmitters back to balance
  • Ingredients work synergistically to support relaxation without chaning your dog’s personality or energy levels
17
Q

Composure Dosing

A
  • Dose:
    • Up to 50 lbs: 1 chew daily
    • 51-100 lbs: 2 chews daily
    • over 100 lbs: 3 chews daily
  • Can be given daily or on an as needed basis
  • Safe to double or triple the dose in times of increased stress
  • CAUTION: Safety in pregnant animals or animals intended for breeding has NOT been proven
18
Q

Composure Pro

A
  • Per chew
    • Thiamine (Vit B1) 100 mg (134mg in original)
    • L-Tryptophan 75 mg (0 mg in original)
    • Col. Calm. Complex Biopeptide Blend 25 mg (22 mg in original)
    • L-Theanine 25 mg (21 in original)
19
Q

L-Tryptophan

A
  • An essential AA that helps the body make proteins and certain brain-signaling chemicals
  • The body changes L-tryptophan into serotonin
    • serotonin helps control mood and sleep
  • Has potential to cause serotonin syndrome when given with other serotonin level altering drugs
20
Q

Solliquin

Nutramax

A
  • L-theanine:
    • An AA found naturally in green tea.
    • Directly stimulates the production of alpha brain waves, creating a state of deep relaxation, wakefulness, and mental awareness
  • Magnolia/Phellodendron:
    • ​Combination appears to be synergistic
    • Controls stress and anxiety more effectvely than either compound alone
  • Whey Protein Concentrate:
    • Contains NMXSLQ05, a trademarked high quality protein source which supplements 10 AAs including precursors of glutathione and serotonin
21
Q

Hemp Products (CBD oil)

A
  • TNTC
  • No Regulation on strength and potency
  • CBD (Cannabidiol) does not contain THC
  • Still illegal to use in some states
    • May 24, 2018 it is not unlawful under state law to possess or sell products or substances containing any amount of Cannabidiol
  • Some state only allow CBD that comes from industrial hemp
    • Usually not just hemp in calming products
22
Q

Melatonin

A
  • A hormone supplement
    • ​can be given alone or in combinaitno
  • Used to treat:
    • Sleep disorders
    • Behavioral disorders
    • Adjunct therapy as pre-visit medication for aggressive dogs
  • Side effects are uncommon:
    • Changes in fertility
      • ​Can decreasecortisol and estradiol levels
    • Sleepiness
    • Weight gain
23
Q

Neutraceutical Herbs

A
  • Chamomile
  • Passion Flower
  • Catnip
  • Vaerian root
  • Skullcap
24
Q

Chamomile

A
  • Matricaria chamomilla L
  • Sedative effects
  • Mild blood thinner
    • contains coumarin
  • Rarly can trigger allergies
    • ragweed, daisies, marigolds, or crysanthemums
  • Drug Interactions (people)
    • Sedatives, blood thinners, antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, NSAID painkillers (ibuprofen & naproxen), and other drugs
    • Could interact with supplements like ginkgo biloba, garlic, saw palmetto, St. John’s wort, and valerian root
25
Q

Passion Flower

A
  • Passiflora incarnata L.
  • Climbing vine native to the SE US
  • Calming, sleep-inducing, muscle spasm-relieving effects
  • Drug interactions:
    • taking with other sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness
26
Q

Catnip

A
  • Nepeta cataria
    • Napetalactone is the active ingredient
  • initial excitement phase and then calm
  • Give about 15 minutes prior to stressful events
  • Some cats become MORE AGGRESSIVE
  • Not all cats respond:
    • Response is heredita
    • only 2/3 cats respond
    • Kittens <12 weeks typically don’t respond
  • Can have calming effects on dogs
27
Q

Valerian Root

(Cats and Dogs)

A
  • Valeriana officinalis
    • Flowering plant native to Europe and Asia
    • Mild sedative and anti-anxiety effects
    • Beleived to work via the receptors of the GABBA
      • Block nerve stransmissions between neurons that stimulate activity
    • Sudden discontinuation can cause withdrawal sypmtoms
    • Drug Interactions
      • Anesthetics
        • ​Shouldn’t be given 2 week prior to procedure
      • Sedative or anit-epileptic drugs
        • may make them more potent
      • Antifungal drugs
        • May have greater side effects when used with valerian
28
Q

Valerian Roots

(Cats only)

A
  • The actinidine in valerian root acts as a stimulant to some cats
  • Some cats that aren’t affected by catnip might show a reaction to valerian root
    • Some don’t seem to react to valerian as well
  • It may be possible for a cat exposed to be more aggressive than usual
  • After initial play period, many cats will be calm and sleep
29
Q

Skullcap

A
  • Member of the mint family
    • Scutellaria laterifolla
  • Calming herb that doesn’t cause drowsiness
    • Is especially effective for genera excitability, restlessness, nervous twitching and nervous tension in dogs and cats
    • Used by some for epilepsy
  • Don’t confuse with autum skullcap (Galerina autumnalis)
    • Highly poisonous mushroom
30
Q

Hill’s Feline Stress Diets

A
  • Hydrolyzed casein (milk protein hydrolysate)
    • a bioactive peptide, helps relieve anxiety
  • L-tryptophan
    • Precursor of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that affects mood and decreases anxiety
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, help reduce and control inflammation
  • Antioxidants Vitamin E and beta-carotene help counteract oxidative stress and free radicals
31
Q

Hill’s Prescription Diet i/d Stress Canine

A
  • Hydrolyzed casien (milk protein hydrolysate)
    • a bioactive peptide, helps relieve anxiety in dogs
32
Q

Royal Canin Canine Calm

A
  • a-casozepine
    • a-S1 casein hydrolysate of milk origin
  • L-tryptophan
    • Serotonin precursor which has an essential role in regulation of stress, sleep, and appetite
  • For small dogs <15kg
33
Q

Purina Pro Plan Vterinary Supplements Calming Care

A
  • A probiotic
    • 6 weeks to see results
    • strain BL999 to help dogs maintain calm behavior
      • reduce excessive vocalization, umping, pacing, and spinning
34
Q

Hill’s Prescription Diet b/d Canine

A
  • High levels of Omega-3 fatty acids
    • helps protect brain cells against free radical damage
35
Q

Purina NC (NeuroCare) Canine Formula

A
  • Enhanced with a unique blend of nutrients and medium chain triglyceride oil
  • Omega-3 fatty acids help support brain health
36
Q

Anxiety Wraps

A
  • Applies gentle, constant pressure, similar to swaddling an infant
  • Over 80% success rate as reported by throusands of families, vets, and trainers
  • Independently studied by Dr. Temple Grandin and other scientists
37
Q

Storm Defender Cape

A
  • Reseaarch shows that dogs sense the static charge buildup before a thunderstorm
    • This same charge, if big enough, produces lightning
  • Dogs naturally try to escape the static charge by moving towards items that are electrically grounded
  • Many thunderstorm-phobic dogs seek shelter in the basement, around the toilet, shower, tub or near pipes
    • Also may try to hide underneath something
  • Favorite spots are often the bathtub (if made of porcelain coated cast iron) or the car
  • Cape:
    • has a special metalic lining that discharges a dog’s fur and shields him from the static charge buildup reducing sensitivity
  • Dog gets relief, and begins to learn that the secondary triggers (rain, wind, thunder, smells) are no longer to be feared
38
Q

Calming Cap

A
  • Reduces visual stimulation
  • sleep mask for dogs
39
Q

Mutt Muffs

A
  • Reduces loud noises
  • Pilot hearing protection inspired ear muffs
40
Q

Doggles

A
  • Tinted goggles to help decrease stimulation from flashes of lightning
  • also for blind dogs to protect eyes
41
Q

DOG Appeasing Pheromone

DAP, Adaptil

A
  • Females secrete pheomones that comfort and reassure nursing puppies
  • These “appeasement” pheromones hve the same calming efect on adult dogs
  • DAP mimic these appeasement pheromones to reduce or eliminate stress in dogs of all ages
  • Plug-ins, sprays, collars
42
Q

Feliway and Feliway Classic

A
  • Happy Messages
    • When comfortable and happy, cats mark their territory as familiar by rubbing their face against corners, furniture, people, or other cats
      • Odorless message known as Feline Facial pheromone
    • When present inthe environment these “happy messages” provide comfort and security
  • On-the-go:
    • Spray at least 1x daily on areas where Cat is peeing or scratching
      • Not on scratching post!
  • Best to wait 10 minutes before putting cat into a carrier or covering with a sprayed towel as the alcohol in the spray is irritating
  • Spays, diffusers, wipes, collars
43
Q

Feliway MultiCat

A
  • Different from Feliway Classic
  • Synthetic copy of pheomones produced by mother cat during lactation
    • reassures kittens and helps them bond
  • Within one week, users noticed a reduction in conflict behaviors, even in households where conflict had been occuring for several years
  • After one month of continuous use, 84% of pet owners reported signgicant improvement in their cats’ ability to get along
  • Best for use in multi-cat households with intercat aggression issues
44
Q

When to use Feliway Classic and Feliway MultiCat together?

A
  • If the conflict between cats is associated with urine spraying or scratching, Both products are recommened
  • 2 diffusers should be plugged in where cats spend the most time
    • can be in the same room
45
Q

Feliscratch by Feliway

A
  • Clinically proven to spot and prevent both vertical and horizontal destructive scratching
  • More than 80% of cats use their scratching posts within the first week
  • More than 90% never started destructive scratching when adopted into a new home using Feliscratch
  • Redirects the cat to scratch the scratching post - not couches or curtains
    • NOT a deterrant - apply to scratching post to attract!
46
Q

Essential Oils

A
  • NEVER put directly on pets
  • Undiluted oils can be very toxic, especially to cats
  • Apply to a towel, cloth, or bandana
  • Keep cats out of theroom where aerosolixing diffusers are used
  • Lavender Oil:
    • Calming effects
  • ThunderCloud:
    • lavender, chamomile, egyptian gernium oil
47
Q

Citronella

A
  • Commonly used in bark collars as a deterrent
48
Q

Auditory Enrichment via Music

A
  • Causes positive behvioral and physiological changes in kenneled dogs
  • Different Genres (Soft Rock/Reggae)
    • increased Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
    • More relaxed behaviors
  • Increasing variety, minimizes extent of habituation to auditory enrichment
49
Q

Loud Noise Desensitization

A
  • Often combined with counter-conditioning
  • Start with lowest volume that doesn’t invoke anxiety
  • Many treats / praise / pet when staying calm
  • Gradually increase volume
    • Could be same day or wekk
    • Be patient, do not increase too rapidly
  • Revert back to lower volume immediately if signs of stress are seen
  • Going too fast can create set-backs
50
Q

Massage

A
  • Natural pressure points for Dogs to decrease stress include Feet, ears, and top of the head
  • As little as 15 minutes of massage can help decrease stress levels
51
Q

Acupressure points in Cats

A
  • Heart 7 & Pericardium 7
    • Just above the cats “wrist” toward the back of the paw
    • place thumb on the medial side, and index on lateral side, hold gently for ~30 seconds or until cat says enough
  • Bai Hui Point:
    • Between the 2 hip sockets where you can’t feel vertical bones, Scratch gently as long as the cat enjoys it
  • Underside of the jaw bone down the neck
    • not an actual pressure point, but very relaxing and calming
52
Q

Acupunture

A
  • Licensed veterinary acupuncturists can treat pet stress
  • stimulates the release of the body’s pain-relieving substances without any potentially adverse side effects
53
Q

Environmental Manipulation

A
  • Close blinds/use heavy drapes
  • Play TV or stereo loudly
  • White noise or calming music
  • Allow to hide under desk, in closet, etc
  • Keep in basement ot decrease visual stimulation and sounds
  • Scat mats and other motion detectors
  • Sticky Pays Pheromones
  • Essential oils
54
Q

Environmental Enrichment

A
  • Exercise
  • Toys
  • Laser Pointers
  • Scratching posts
  • Food puzzles
  • Stuffable Kongs
  • Create Vertical Space
    • cat trees
    • Wall shelves
  • Doggy Day Care
  • Hammocks
  • Window perches
  • Tunnels
  • Boxes
  • Dog Parks
  • Catios
  • Paper Bags
  • Electronic toys
55
Q

Conclusions

A
  • Many of these nonprescription products can help minimize inappropriate behavior, phobia, fear, and anxiety seen in our pets
  • Knowing benefits as well as possible harmful effects are both equally important
  • Have a good working knowledge base of common active ingredients and products can greatly aid in the management of your patients