Flashcards in Normans- Life under Normans Deck (39):
How did William change the hierarchy?
William made the hierarchy so that he held far more power and replaced the Anglo-Saxon earls
The introduction of the Norman style feudal system also changed how England was defended. All land was technically owned by the king and anyone that was given land by the king had to pay taxes and provide men for military service.
How did land ownership change?
William now held 22% of the land where Edward only held 12%
William made his most trusted and loyal supporters tenants-in-chief (barons and bishops) and granted them huge areas of land, there were about 200 of them
What was the hierarchy like in Anglo-Saxon England?
Anglo-Saxon England had a hierarchy based on land ownership and 6 earls held most of the country for the king which led to rebellions such as Godwin
How many thegns owned land in Anglo Saxon England?
In Anglo-Saxon England, there were about 4000 Thegns holding land
What was the biggest change from Saxon times?
In return for land, military service became a legal obligation almost a "religious duty"
Tenants-in-chief had to provide an agreed number of knights usually for 40 days per year
They either granted land to kights (in return for service) or paid them to fulfill this duty
The Knights swore an oath of fealty
By 1100, how many knights could the king call on?
How did William increase his power of patronage
He charged fees when his tenants died
He arranged the marriage of the widows of the tenants
He redistributed land if there was no male heir
Why was Wales a tricky place?
It wasn't a united country so William couldn't take over it
Each area was ruled by a warrior prince
What did William do to control the Welsh borders?
He granted the land there to his most trusted supporters and they became known as the Marcher lords
Who were the Marcher lords?
Chester, Shrewsbury and Hereford
What powers did the Marcher lords posses?
They could make laws, keep armies and build castles without permission
How were king's orders issued in Anglo-Saxon times and how did the normans change it?
Normans issued far more Writs
How did William change inheritance laws?
When someone dies, their property can only be given to the eldest son(primogeniture)
If a a tenant dies with no heirs, the lord keeps it
If the heir is too young, the lord keeps it and it's profits until he is old enough
What was the government like under the Anglo-Saxons?
England was split into 134 shires each under the control of a shire-reeve (sheriff)
What did the Normans do to the government?
Nothing, they actually kept the system
They just replaced Anglo-saxon shire reeves with Norman sheriffs
What was the Sherrif's duty?
He made annual payments to the king
He collected taxes
He raised armies
What did William do to the legal system?
He kept many Saxon features but they simplified it and made it more consistent
They also introduced The Honourial Courts of the Lord where the Lord dealt with crimes or property transaction on his land
Describe the shire courts
It was established well before 1066
They now meet more regularly and supervised by sheriff
Disputes over theft and violence
Describe the king's courts
The most important person- his decisions are binding
Disputes over murder, treason, arson, robbery and rape
How was the law enforced by the Normans?
Through various things such as constables, watchmen, Hue and cry, Tithings and the murdrum fine
Describe the role of the constables
They had the power to arrest people, break up fights and prevent fires
Describe the role of the watchmen
They made sure people stuck to curfews, prevented crime and caught criminals
What was Hue and cry?
It was a system to catch criminals
Anyone who saw an offense had to raise an alarm and everyone who heard it had to try and catch the criminal if they ignored it they would be fined
What was a Tithing?
A group of 10-12 freemen who promised not to commit any crimes if one did the rest would reveal them
What was the Murdrum fine?
If a norman was killed and the murderer wasn't revealed in 5 days the whole community would be fined
Name the trials that were enforced?
Trial by ordeal
Trial by battle (Norman)
What were the trials by ordeal?
Trial by cold water
Trial by hot iron
Describe the trial by cold water
An accused person will be dunked in a water usually a river that has been blessed with holy water, the idea was that the holy water would repel a sinner so the guilty would float
Describe the trial by hot iron
An accused person will hold a red hot iron in their hand for 3 paces then it would be bound
Its checked 3 days later, if its infected then they were guilty
Describe the trial by battle
The accuser and accused fight and the idea was that god would be on the innocent's side and they would win
Allowed to surrender but if you did you're declared as guilty
Not a battle to death but someone usually ends up dying
What would happen if the accuser was wrong?
They would have to pay compensation to the king and the accused
What would happen if the accused was guilty?
FOR SMALL CRIMES like theft they would have to pay a
FOR BIGGER CRIMES they would be hanged or undergo physical mutilations
What was the Domesday Book?
A full written record of property ownership across England and was completed in less than a year
When was it decided to make the Domesday Book?
In December 1085, William met his Great Council in Gloucester and at this meeting he decided to order a survey listing all landowners and their tenants, how the land was used and all buildings such as churches
What were the reasons for the Domesday Book to be made?
Norman landowners by 1085 were beginning to argue over who owned what so William wanted to make certain about who actually owned what
Also England was under threat of invasion from the count of Flanders and the vikings and he could find out by doing the survey who owed military service
What were the key functions of the Domesday Book?
To record the transfer and passion of land
To record the value of each estate
To introduce a new system of taxation
What was the process of making the Domesday Book?
The country was divided into seven circuits
Anglo- Saxon records were studied and 3-4 commissioners visited each circuit
The findings were presented to a jury at the shire courts
The jury had to check that the accounts were accurate
What were the final steps of making the Domesday Book?
The findings were compiled into two accounts, ordered by individual and location
They were then presented to William at Salisbury in August 1086