Flashcards in Normans - Conquest and Control Pt 2 Deck (39):
Why did William build castles?
Initially to shelter his troops and establish control but later were built to prevent rebellion
The castles housed Norman cavalry and their horses so that they could easily defend the area
Where were castles usually built?
At strategic sites or in vulnerable areas such as the Welsh Borders
How were the castles built?
The Normans forced English workers to build them
Name the features of a castle?
Why was the keep important?
Where the most important people stayed as it was the safest part of the castle
Why was the outer bailey important?
The area that had houses or buildings that needed to be kept safe
Defenders can push attackers off here
Why was the Inner Bailey important?
Its the last line of defence
Why was the palisade important?
They were high walls with plenty of lookout posts
Why was the moat important?
Its used to defend as it was a ditch surrounding the castle which could be filled with water, mud or sewage
Why was the motte important?
It makes the castle higher as its the mound the castle is built on meaning its more difficult for attackers to attack
Name the 5 ways William established control
Name some examples of how William used terror to establish control
-Harrying of the North
- Seized and disinherited families of the Saxons who died at Hastings
Name an example of how William used military presence to establish control
Intimidating people by stationing castles and garrisons
(one in Exeter prevented people from supporting Godwinson)
Name an example of how William used patronage to establish control
gave land and positions to people to secure loyalty
(allowed English Lords who pledged loyalty to him to keep their titles, such as Edwin and Morcar)
Name an example of how William used legality to establish control
Showed that he's legally and rightfully the king of England
- kept the Royal Writs in English until the 1070s
- kept Stignand as the Archbishop of Canterbury
What was the problem that occurred straight after Hastings?
Many English Lords wanted Edgar to be the king
How did William deal with the English Lords after Hastings?
By marching through Kent and forcing them to surrender
By doing this it made the Lords change their minds as they saw the destruction caused by William
What happened in the December after the battle of Hastings?
Edgar and some English Lords met William at Berkhamsted and submitted to him
What happened on Christmas Day, 1066?
William was crowned king by Ealdred, the Archbishop of York
How did William try and keep the support of English lords?
-He continued to use English for royal writs
-Allowed Stigand to remain, Archbishop of Canterbury,
-Allowed English lords who pledged loyalty to keep their land
- Encouraged English Lords to marry Normans
Why did opposition increase in 1067?
William left for Normandy and left Odo and Fitz Osbern in charge and they imposed high taxes and led a harsh rule
What happened in 1067 at the Welsh borders?
Welsh kings came to the borders and helped rebellions to happen, they looted and stole on the borders
What happened in 1067 in Northumbria?
- William appointed Cospig to rule Northumbria
- Cospig had previously worked for Tostig who the Northumbrians hated
- so they ambushed and hacked Cospig to death
What happened in 1067 In Kent?
-people were angry about how they were treated so they persuade Eustace, who had fallen out with William, to seize Dover castle but was defeated
What happened with Edwin and Morcar in 1068?
-Their power was being eroded and talk of Edwin marrying William's daughter came to nothing
-They rebelled and encouraged many to follow n
-William built a castle and they both submitted
What happened with the South West (Exeter) in 1068?
-The city of Exeter refused to swear loyalty as they were unhappy about taxes and supported Godwinson
-William dealt with it himself and made them surrender after 18 days of besieging it
-He left a castle there and his half-brother in charge
-Exeter refused to support the Godwinsons after that because of the castle and garrison there
What was happening in the North?
The North had always been a difficult area to control
Who was Robert Cumin and what problems did he cause?
He was appointed as Earl of Northumbria by William
He allowed looting and killing which the Northumbrians didn't like
How did the English react to Cumin?
They started a general uprising but this came to the attention of Edgar Aethling and led him to return
What did Edgar Aethling's return do?
He supported a full rebellion with soldiers from King Swein in Denmark who sent them over in a fleet of 240 ships
How did William react to the rebellion?
He defeated them quickly and built a second castle in York and put his cousin William Fitz Osbern in charge
He paid the Danes to leave England and they agreed
And in order to deter future rebellions in the North, he proceeded with mass killings, burning of houses, animals and crops and plundering
He made the land uninhabitable
This is known as the Harrying of the North
What did William do after the Harrying of the North?
William goes back and celebrates Christmas in York even wearing his crown amidst the ruins
Early 1070 he tracked down some of the rebel leaders and some swore loyalty where some fled to Scotland (Edgar Aethling)
In 1070-71 what were William's problems?
1.Many of his followers wanted to return to Normandy so William paid them
2.The Danes never returned home
What happened in May 1070?
The Danes joined by King Swein took control of Ely after claiming they could take England out of Norman hands
Who's Hereward the Wake and what did he do?
-He was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman
-He helped the Danes to loot and destroy much of Peterborough
-He joined with Morcar and caused trouble
What happened to Hereward and Morcar?
-They were both defeated
-Morcar was jailed for life but Hereward got his lands back because he wasn't seen as a serious threat
Why did the earls rebel in 1075?
Roger, Earl of Hereford was dissatisfied with his position as his father ruled over more land
Ralph de Gael, Earl of East Anglia didn't actually fight for Willaim so didn't feel loyal to him
Why were the earls' unhappiness a threat to William?
They were his men