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What is linguistics?

The study of the nature, structure, and variation of language

1

What are the 2 definitions of vernacular?

1. Standard native language of a country or locality
2. Everyday language specific to a region or social group

2

What is colloquial speech?

Words used in ordinary conversation rather than formal speech

3

What is slang?

Language used in casual or playful speech
-uses figures of speech
-requires familiarity
-usually intended for humor

4

What is prescriptive grammar?

Structure of language as people think it should be used
-rules and conventions
-school grammar
-formal speech

5

What is descriptive grammar?

Structure of language as it is actually used by speakers and writers
-studied by linguists
-casual setting

6

What is a parenthetic expression?

Group of words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence and can be omitted without changing the sentence's meaning

7

What is a restrictive modifier?

Presents information essential to the identity of the noun
-no commas needed

8

What is a nonrestrictive modifier?

Presents info not essential to the identity of the noun
-requires commas

9

When is a dash used?

-too long or too abrupt
-modifiers contain commas
-highlight or emphasize info

10

When are parentheses used?

-asides
-multi sentence explanations
-downplay the info

11

What is the difference between the period and semi colon?

-semi colon suggests close relationship
-period provides distinct separation

12

How do you make a singular noun possessive?

Add 's no matter the final consonant

13

How do you make a plural noun possessive?

-Add just apostrophe if plural noun ends in s
-Add 's if it does not end in s

14

What are the 3 exceptions to Rule 1?

1. Ancient names (apostrophe only)
2. Archaic phrases (apostrophe only)
3. Pronominal possessives (none)
4. Noun ending in 'z' sound (' only)