NS infection - Important Vaccines Flashcards Preview

Yr 2 Nervous System > NS infection - Important Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in NS infection - Important Vaccines Deck (13):
1

How does polyomyelitis work?

Its an enterovirus (Type 1, 2, 3) that infects anterior horn cells of LMNs causing Asymmetric Flaccid paralysis (mainly in legs)

2

What type of poliomyelitis is used in the vaccine?

Trick question its all 3

3

How does Rabies work?

transmitted by bite of saliva in open lesion

Neurotropic, so the virus gets into PNS and migrates to the CNS

- Paraesthesia at site of lesion
- Asc. Paralysis
- Encephalitis

4

How do we diagnose Rabies?

PCR or Serology
These only work after the clinical disease is already apparant

5

How does the rabies vaccine work and who gets it in the UK?

Active immunisation using the killed virus.

Given to:
- Bat Handlers
- Handlers of imported animals
- Travellers to enzootic areas

6

How do we treat Rabies after exposure?

# Wash the wound
# Give the Active Rabies Immunisation (Vaccine)
# Give Passive Immunisation (Human Rabies Immunoglobulin) if at high risk

7

How does Tetanus work?

Clostridium Tetani (Anaerobic Gram +ve Baccilus)

Toxins block inhibition at NMJ causing rigidity and spasm

8

How do we prevent Tetanus?

Toxoid Immunisation

Penicillin & Immunoglobulin for high risk patients after exposure

9

How does botulism work?

Clostridium Botulinum (Anaerobic Gram +ve Bacillus)

Neurotoxin binds irreversibly to presynaptic membranes of NMJ & Autonomic junctions,
This blocks Ach release and they wont recover till new axons sprout

10

How is Clostridium Botulinum transmitted to humans?

- Infantile intestinal colonisation
- Food Borne
- Wound (Injecting drugs mainly)

11

How does Botulism present?

4-14 days incubation then:
- Desc. Symmetrical Flaccid Paralysis
- Incl. Resp Failure
- Autonomic Dysfunction e.g. Pupil Dilation

12

How do we diagnose Botulism?

- Nerve Conduction Studies
- Culture from wound
- Mouse Neutralisation Bioassay (For toxin in blood)

13

How do we treat Botulism?

- Anti Toxin (A, B & E)
- Penicillin/Metronidazole (prolonged treatment)
- Radical Wound Debridement