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Spring 2014 > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (140)
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61

Goblet cells

Cells of the GI tract (and lungs) that secrete mucus.

62

Water-soluble nutrients and small fat fragments that that pass through the cells of the villi enter the:

Blood

63

Fat-soluble nutrients that pass through the cells of the villi enter the:

Lymph

64

Capillaries

Small vessels that branch from an artery and connect arteries to veins. Exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across capillary walls.

65

The vascular (or blood circulatory) system

A closed system of vessels through which blood flows continuously, with the heart serving as the pump. As the blood circulates through this system, it picks up and delivers materials as needed.

66

Blood travels this route:

Heart > arteries > capillaries > veins > heart

67

Blood leaving the digestive system travels this route:

Heart > arteries > capillaries in intestines > to hepatic portal vein > to capillaries in liver > hepatic vein > heart

68

Aorta

The large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries.

69

Arteries

Vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues.

70

Veins

Vessels that carry blood to the heart.

71

Hepatic portal vein

The vein that collects blood from the GI tract and conducts it to the liver.

portal = gateway

72

Hepatic vein

The vein that collects blood from the liver and returns it to the heart.

hepatic = liver

73

Lactels

The lymphatic vessels of the intestine that take up nutrients and pass them to the lymph circulation.

74

Lymphatic system

A loosely organized system of vessels and ducts that convey fluids toward the heart. The GI part of the lymphatic system carries the products of fat digestion into the bloodstream. A one-way route for fluid from the tissue spaces to enter the blood.

75

Lymph

A clear yellowish fluid that is similar to blood except that it contains no red blood cells or platelets. Lymph from the GI tract transports fat and fat-soluble vitamins to the bloodstream via lymphatic vessels.

76

Thoracic duct

The main lymphatic vessel that collects lymph and drains into the left subclavian vein.

77

Subclavian

The vein that provides passage from the lymphatic system to the vascular system.

78

Flora

Bacteria in the intestines.

79

Prebiotics

Food components (such as fibers) that are not digested in the small intestine, but are used instead as food by bacteria to encourage their growth or activity.

80

Synbiotic

A mixture of probiotics and prebiotics.

81

Probiotics

Living microorganisms found in foods and dietary supplements that, when consumed in sufficient quantities, are beneficial to health.

pro = for
bios = health

82

Two intricate and sensitive systems coordinate all the digestive and absorptive processes:

The hormonal (or endocrine) system and the nervous system.

83

Homeostasis

The maintenance of constant internal conditions (such as blood chemistry, temperature, and blood pressure) by the body's control systems. A homeostatic system is constantly reacting to external forces to maintain limits set by the body's needs.

homeo = the same
stasis = staying

84

Hormones

Chemical messengers. Hormones are secreted by a variety of glands in response to altered conditions in the body. Each hormone travels to one or more specific target tissues or organs, where it elicits a specific response to maintain homeostasis.

85

Gastrin (a GI hormone)

A hormone secreted by the cells in the stomach wall. Target organ: the glands in the stomach. Response: secretion of gastric acid.

86

Secretin (a GI hormone)

A hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall. Target organ: the pancreas. Response: secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice.

87

Zymogen

The inactive precursor of an enzyme.

zym = concerning enzymes
gen = to produce

88

Satiation / satiety

The feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating. Determines how much time passes between meals.

sate = to fill

89

Satiation

The feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating.

90

Carbohydrates

Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, carbohydrates have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule: (CH20)n.

4kcal/g

carbo = carbon (C)
hydrate = with water (H20)