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Flashcards in nutrition Deck (38):
1

Function and food source of carbohydrate

To provide fuel for energy, there are two types, high GI is simple and complex is low GI.
Bread, pasta, fruit

2

Function and food source of fat

The main function is to act as fuel for energy, it also and maintains cell membranes.
Cheese, avocado, nuts, olive oil

3

Function and food source of protein

The main function is to build, maintain and repair body cells and muscles.
meat, leafy greens, milk

4

Function and food source of fibre

Prevents constipation, long term it lowers your risk of bowel cancer, fills you up, reduces the amount of cholesterol absorbed by the body
fruit, whole grains, legumes

5

Function of food source of iron

Is an essential part of blood, forms the haem in haemoglobin which carries the oxygen in the blood.
meat, leafy greens, nuts

6

Function and food source of Vitamin A

Essential for cell division, maintain healthy teeth, skin, skeletal and soft tissue.
red, orange and yellow food

7

Function and food source of Vitamin C

important for the structure of the tissues, collagen and the absorption of iron.
fruits and vegies

8

Calorie

= 4.2kj, average consumption is 2000 calories, energy is measured in calories

9

Kilojoules

Average consumption is 8700kj, energy is measured in kj

10

What is the Glycaemic Index?

The glycaemic index or glycaemic index is a number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the food's effect on a person's blood glucose level

11

Examples for high GI and low GI

High - lollies, white bread
Low - bread, pasta

12

What is the recommended athletes diet?

55-60% CHO
25-30% fat
10-15% protein
however these differ depending on the type of sport they do

13

Why is it important for athletes to have good nutrition?

- Food fuels provide energy for the body (ATP resynthesis)
- delay fatigue - depletion of food stores and dehydration
- ensure efficient recovery

14

Pre exercise nutrition purpose

Is to ensure that glycogen stores are topped up for the activity.

15

Pre exercise nutrition guidelines

- High in complex CHO (low GI)
- Low in fat
- low in simple sugars (high GI)
- Foods you enjoy and are comfortable with
- Drink 150ml of fluid every 15 mins in the 2 hours prior to the competition

16

Pre exercise time frame

2-4 hours prior to comp
Too close means an upset stomach
Too far means you'll be hungry during the game

17

Pre exercise example meals

3-4 hours, baked beans and toast
1-2 hours, fruit or smoothie
Less than 1 or during, sports drink or lollies

18

What is carb loading?

Consume high CHO foods three days prior as well as decreasing training intensity

19

Why is carb loading beneficial?

Can improve performance 3-5%
Increases glycogen stores by 200-300%
Delay in fatigue
Maintain higher intensities for longer

20

When is carb loading suitable?

For 90 mins or longer
Not practical for team sport players
Not suitable for short term exercise

21

Why isn't carb loading suitable for short term exercise and team players?

Short term exercise has enough CHO stores to suffice
Team players cannot carb load due to their training demand

22

During exercise what food should be consumed?

Sports drink
CHO gels
Sugar confectionary

23

Why is food consumed during exercise?

During shorter term exercise the body's CHO stores will be sufficient, but longer than 90 minutes the CHO stores deplete and need to be quickly replaced.

24

What should you eat post exercise?

In the first 15 mins consume 50-80g of carbs, during the 2 hours that follow consume a meal high in complex carbs (low GI) with some protein for muscle growth and repair

25

Why should you eat post exercise?

After exercise the glycogen is depleted and needs to be replenished

26

The effects of dehydration

Decreases the blood flow to the skin and causes fatigue

27

How do muscles cool themselves down?

Muscles create heat when they contract, so the blood vessels vasodilate carrying the heat to the skin where it is evaporated and cools the body down.

28

Why are sports drinks beneficial?

Because they quickly replace fluids, electrolytes and carbs that are lost during exercise due to sweating.

29

What are the three types of sports drinks?

isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic

30

isotonic

Has similar concentrations of salt and sugar as the human body
Quickly replaces fluids
Preferred choice for most athletes
ie; Gatorade, powerade

31

hypertonic

Higher concentration of salt and sugar than the human body
Ultra endurance events
ie; drinks that say 'endurance' or 'performance'

32

hypotonic

Has lower concentrations of salt and sugar than in the human body
Suitable to replace fluids without CHO boost
ie; Watered down sports drink, Gatorade G2 or Powerade Zero

33

unsaturated fats

found in plants and fish
reduce heart disease and lower cholesterol
ie; olive oil, tuna

34

saturated fats

found in fatty meats
increases risk for heart disease and high cholesterol

35

simple carbs

simple sugars
rapidly digested and provide quick energy release
ie; sugar, fruit, lollies

36

complex carbs

starches
digested slowly and provide lasting energy
ie; bread crackers pasta rice

37

calcium

maintain and from bones and teeth

38

how long does it take if sufficient carbs are consumed immediately after exercise to glycogen to fully replenish?

24 hours