Flashcards in nutrition Deck (38):
Function and food source of carbohydrate
To provide fuel for energy, there are two types, high GI is simple and complex is low GI.
Bread, pasta, fruit
Function and food source of fat
The main function is to act as fuel for energy, it also and maintains cell membranes.
Cheese, avocado, nuts, olive oil
Function and food source of protein
The main function is to build, maintain and repair body cells and muscles.
meat, leafy greens, milk
Function and food source of fibre
Prevents constipation, long term it lowers your risk of bowel cancer, fills you up, reduces the amount of cholesterol absorbed by the body
fruit, whole grains, legumes
Function of food source of iron
Is an essential part of blood, forms the haem in haemoglobin which carries the oxygen in the blood.
meat, leafy greens, nuts
Function and food source of Vitamin A
Essential for cell division, maintain healthy teeth, skin, skeletal and soft tissue.
red, orange and yellow food
Function and food source of Vitamin C
important for the structure of the tissues, collagen and the absorption of iron.
fruits and vegies
= 4.2kj, average consumption is 2000 calories, energy is measured in calories
Average consumption is 8700kj, energy is measured in kj
What is the Glycaemic Index?
The glycaemic index or glycaemic index is a number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the food's effect on a person's blood glucose level
Examples for high GI and low GI
High - lollies, white bread
Low - bread, pasta
What is the recommended athletes diet?
however these differ depending on the type of sport they do
Why is it important for athletes to have good nutrition?
- Food fuels provide energy for the body (ATP resynthesis)
- delay fatigue - depletion of food stores and dehydration
- ensure efficient recovery
Pre exercise nutrition purpose
Is to ensure that glycogen stores are topped up for the activity.
Pre exercise nutrition guidelines
- High in complex CHO (low GI)
- Low in fat
- low in simple sugars (high GI)
- Foods you enjoy and are comfortable with
- Drink 150ml of fluid every 15 mins in the 2 hours prior to the competition
Pre exercise time frame
2-4 hours prior to comp
Too close means an upset stomach
Too far means you'll be hungry during the game
Pre exercise example meals
3-4 hours, baked beans and toast
1-2 hours, fruit or smoothie
Less than 1 or during, sports drink or lollies
What is carb loading?
Consume high CHO foods three days prior as well as decreasing training intensity
Why is carb loading beneficial?
Can improve performance 3-5%
Increases glycogen stores by 200-300%
Delay in fatigue
Maintain higher intensities for longer
When is carb loading suitable?
For 90 mins or longer
Not practical for team sport players
Not suitable for short term exercise
Why isn't carb loading suitable for short term exercise and team players?
Short term exercise has enough CHO stores to suffice
Team players cannot carb load due to their training demand
During exercise what food should be consumed?
Why is food consumed during exercise?
During shorter term exercise the body's CHO stores will be sufficient, but longer than 90 minutes the CHO stores deplete and need to be quickly replaced.
What should you eat post exercise?
In the first 15 mins consume 50-80g of carbs, during the 2 hours that follow consume a meal high in complex carbs (low GI) with some protein for muscle growth and repair
Why should you eat post exercise?
After exercise the glycogen is depleted and needs to be replenished
The effects of dehydration
Decreases the blood flow to the skin and causes fatigue
How do muscles cool themselves down?
Muscles create heat when they contract, so the blood vessels vasodilate carrying the heat to the skin where it is evaporated and cools the body down.
Why are sports drinks beneficial?
Because they quickly replace fluids, electrolytes and carbs that are lost during exercise due to sweating.
What are the three types of sports drinks?
isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic
Has similar concentrations of salt and sugar as the human body
Quickly replaces fluids
Preferred choice for most athletes
ie; Gatorade, powerade
Higher concentration of salt and sugar than the human body
Ultra endurance events
ie; drinks that say 'endurance' or 'performance'
Has lower concentrations of salt and sugar than in the human body
Suitable to replace fluids without CHO boost
ie; Watered down sports drink, Gatorade G2 or Powerade Zero
found in plants and fish
reduce heart disease and lower cholesterol
ie; olive oil, tuna
found in fatty meats
increases risk for heart disease and high cholesterol
rapidly digested and provide quick energy release
ie; sugar, fruit, lollies
digested slowly and provide lasting energy
ie; bread crackers pasta rice
maintain and from bones and teeth