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Flashcards in Nutrition and Supporting Sciences Deck (206)
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1

what is energy?

the capacity to do work

2

___, ___, and ___ all yield energy

CHO, protein, and fat

3

___ and ___ provide 4 calories/gram

CHO and protein

4

CHO and protein provide ___ calories/gram

4

5

___ provides 9 calories/gram

fat

6

fat provides ___ calories/gram

9

7

the brain uses ___ exclusively as an E source

glucose

8

the brain uses glucose exclusively as an ___

E source

9

what does the brain use as an E source during starvation?

ketone bodies

10

where are tissue stores of glucose in the body

1. glycogen in muscle and liver
2. fat from adipose tissue
3. cellular mass (protein stores)

11

glucose is stored in the ___ and ___ as glycogen

muscle; liver

12

glucose is stored in the muscle and liver as ___

glycogen

13

what is gluconeogenesis

conversion of non-carbohydrate sources into glucose; creation of glucose from glycerol and amino acids

14

what is homeostasis

state of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body

15

what are enzymes

proteins; organic catalysts that control reaction

16

what is a conenzyme

enzyme activators; includes some vitamins (B)

17

what vitamins are needed for E production?

pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin

18

what is a substrate

substance upon which an enzyme works

19

what is a cofactor

assists enzymes; minerals

20

what are hormones?

secretions from endocrine; trigger enzyme action; chemical messengers that trigger enzymes

21

what does thyroxine regulate

metabolism and rate of oxidation

22

thyroxine influences what

physical and mental growth

23

what happens when glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis of the liver is stimulated

raises the blood glucose

24

what is anabolism

synthesis of a more complex substance

25

what is catabolism

breakdown; uses and releases energy; creates a constant energy deficit, which must be supplied by food

26

what is BEE

basal energy expenditure; minimum amount of energy needed at rest in fasting (amount needed to carry out involuntary work of the body, activity of internal organs, and internal temp)

27

BEE is affected by what?

extremes in environmental temperatures; tropical climate 5-20% increase

28

what stimulates metabolic rate and by how much?

caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine; 7-15%

29

what is EEPA

energy expended in physical activity; highly variable

30

what is TEF

thermic effect of food, diet-induced thermogenesis, the calorigenic effect of food; energy needed to digest, absorb, and assimilate nutrients; ~10% of E expenditure

31

TEF is greater or less after consumption of carb and protein than after fat

greater

32

TEF is about ___% of E expenditure

10%

33

what is BMR

basal metabolic rate; measured in morning when reclining, awake, relaxed, at normal body temp, at least 12 hrs after meal, and several hours after strenuous activity

34

BMR measures

oxygen consumed

35

BMR is affected primarily by what 4 things

1. sex
2. age
3. body composition
4. endocrine glands-thyroid

36

how is BMR affected by sex

women have 5-10% lower BMR than men

37

how is BMR affected by age

highest BMR is 0-2 years of age; older adults less activity, less lean body mass, more body fat: BMR decreases

38

how is BMR measured

by PBI/protein bound iodine; measures activity of thyroid gland, metabolism, level of thyroxine priduced

39

when PBI is elevated, BMR is ___

elevated

40

is PBI a nutritional assessment parameter?

no

41

BMR can be increased by ___

exercise

42

what is BEE

basal energy expenditure; calculated BMR

43

BEE includes what

age, sex, body surface area (height, weight)

44

what is rmr?

energy expenditure measured under similar conditions, after a short rest and controlled intake of caffeine, alcohol

45

___ is more frequently measured than BMR

RMR

46

RMR is ___ than BMR by ___%

greater; 10-20%

47

of the predictive equations ___ predicts within 10% of indirect calorimetry

Mifflin St Jeor

48

Mifflin St Jeor should be used with ___ and ___ individuals

normal weight and obese individuals; use actual body weight for underweight, overweight, and obese

49

what is the most practical way of measuring energy balance

following changes in weight

50

RQ depends on what

fuel mixture being metabolized:
cho alone: 1
mixture: 0.85
protein alone: 0.82
fat alone: 0.7

51

list the monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

52

list the disaccharides

sucrose, lactose, maltose

53

what 2 monosaccharides is sucrose made of

glucose and fructose

54

what 2 monosaccharides is lactose made of

glucose and glucose

55

what 2 monosaccharides is maltose made of

glucose and galactose

56

list the polysaccharides

1. starch
2. cellulose
3. glycogen
4. dextrin
5. pectin

57

what is starch

glucose chains, 50% of CHO intake

58

what is cellulose

resistant to digestive enzyme amylase; adds bulk

59

what is glycogen

animal starch; from glucose; stored in muscle and liver

60

what is pectin

nondigestible; thickening quality; in fruits

61

what is dextrin

intermediate product of starch breakdown

62

what is sorbitol

alcohol from glucose; absorbed by passive diffusion; converted into fructose

63

how sweet is fructose

the sweetest

64

how sweet is sorbitol

slightly less sweet than glucose

65

put the following in order of sweetness: sucrose, sorbitol, glucose, fructose, invert sugar, lactose, galactose, maltose, mannitol

1. fructose
2. invert sugar
3. sucrose
4. glucose
5. sorbitol
6. mannitol
7. galactose
8. maltose
9. lactose

66

what is the make up carbohydrates

made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

67

what are the functions of cho

energy, protein-sparing action, regulation of fat metabolism

68

sulfur is found in what proteins

cystine, cysteine, and methionine

69

what make up protein

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; sulfur in cystine, cysteine, and methionine

70

what % of a protein is nitrogen

16%

71

amino acids have a ___ and a ___

amino group (NH2) as acid; carboxyl group (COOH) as the acid

72

**what are the essential amino acids

TV TILL PMH;
threonine
valine
tryptophan
isoleucine
leucine
lysine
phenylalanine
methionine
histidine

73

what are the 2 conditionally essential amino acids

arginine
glutamine

74

tryptophan is a precursor for ___ and ___

seratonin; niacin

75

___ is converted to tyrosine

phenylalanine

76

phenylalanine is converted to ___

tyrosine

77

methionine is converted to ___

cysteine

78

___ is converted to cysteine

methionine

79

what is a conjugated protein

simple plus non protein substance (like lipoprotein)

80

what is a simple protein

yields only amino acids

81

what is a derived protein

fragments from simple and conjugates (like peptide)

82

what are the functions of protein

- tissue synthesis
- maintains growth
- regulated body processes

83

why is protein an inefficient energy source

nitrogen must be removed first; 58% of protein can be converted to gluose

84

what are the diet requirements for protein

0.8 g/kg body weight; 10-15% of total E intake

85

legumes are low in what amino acids

methionine, cystine, and tryptophan

86

gelatin is low in what amino acids

methionine and cystine; has NO tryptophan

87

most food fat is a ___

triglyceride

88

triglycerides are ___ fats; made of ___ and ___

simple; 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

89

where are phospholipid found

cell membrane

90

what is a compound fat

simple plus other component (like a phospholipid)

91

what is a derived fat

derived from simple or compound by fat hydrolysis or enzymatic breakdown (like fatty acid, glycerol, steroid)

92

what are examples of a derived fat

fatty acid, glycerol, steroid

93

what are saturated fatty acids

all available bonds of carbon dioxide are filled with hydrogen; solid and hard at room temp

94

what is an unsaturated fatty acid

one or more double bond

95

**___ is the most polyunsaturated

safflower oil

96

**___ is the most unsaturated

canola oil

97

**linoleic acid is omega ___

6

98

**what is the best source

safflower oil

99

**a deficiency in linoleic acid does what

creates eczema, poor growth rate, petechiae

100

**if linoleic acid replaces CHO

LDL decreases, HDL increases

101

**if linoleic acid replaces saturated fat

cholesterol decreases, HDL decreases

102

EPA and DHA are what type of omega

3

103

EPA mainly comes from

fish

104

DHA comes mainly from

walnut, flaxseed, and canola oil

105

omega 3 have what effect on cholesterol levels

little; decreases hepatic production of triglycerides (inhibit VLDL synthesis)

106

omega 3 is involved in ___

retinal function and brain development

107

what does omega 3 deficiency result in

neurological changes-blurred vision, numbness

108

what is the structure of fatty acids

straight hydrocarbon chain ending in a corboxyl (COOH) group at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the other

109

how are fatty acids classified

- number of carbons
- position of first double bond
- number of double bonds

110

what is designated by the omega sign

location of the first double bond counted from the METHYL end

111

what is the structure of linoleic acid

C18:2omega6

112

what is the structure of linolenic acid

C12:3omega3

113

linoleic acid is omega ___

6

114

linolenic acid is omega ___

3

115

in terms of fat, what is hydrogenation

process of adding hydrogen at the double bond of unsaturated fatty acids to increase saturation and stability

116

in trans fatty acids the hydrogens are found ___ from each other

across from each other; harmful to cell function

117

trans fats are found in milk fat, ___%

4-8%

118

___, ___. and ___ contain trans fats as a product of partial hydrogenation of PUFA

margarine, shortenings, frying fats

119

**what is the most saturated

coconut oil

120

list the following in order from most to least saturated fat: palm oil, palm kernel, cocoa butter, coconut, canola, butter

coconut, palm kernel, cocoa butter, butter, palm oil, canola

121

Medium chain triglycerides have how many carbons

6-12

122

where are MCTs found

milk fat, coconut oil, palm kernel

123

list the following in order from most to least MUFA: coconut, sunflower, peanut, kernel, olive

olive, canola, peanut, sunflower, coconut

124

what has the most MUFA

olive oil

125

what has the most PUFA

safflower oil

126

list the following in order from most to least PUFA: cottonseed, soybean, safflower, p;am kernel, sunflower

safflower, corn, soybean, cottonseed, sunflower, palm kernel

127

list the following from most to least for butter: MUFA, PUFA, sat

sat, pufa, mufa

128

list the following from most to least for margarin: MUFA, PUFA, sat

pufa, mufa, sat

129

how does fat delay gastric emptying

depresses gastric secretion

130

why does fat provide more energy than CHO

has less oxygen and more carbon; more carbon atoms for oxidation

131

what are the diet requirements for fat

less than 30% kcals

132

how is alcohol metabolized

as a fat; 7 g/kcal

133

how do you determine calories from alcohol?

(.8)(proof)(ounces); proof=(%alcohol)(2)

134

how is proof calculated

(% alcohol)(2)

135

**what is winterized oil

treated so won't crystallize when cold (salad dressings)

136

**how is winterized oil made?

oil chilled to 45 degrees; fatty acids with high melting points crystallize and are filtered out

137

**what is the appearance of winterized oil

clear NOT cloudy

138

**what are some oils that have are winterized

corn, soy, cottonseed; NOT olive

139

how much insensible water is lost each day

0.8-1.2 litres

140

how do you calculate mEq

(mg/atomic wt)*valence

141

what are the atomic weights and valances of Na+, K+, and Ca2+

Na+: 23, 1
K+: 39, 1
Ca2+ :40, 2

142

what are extracellular electrolytes

- Na; sodium
- Ca; calcium
- Cl; chloride
-HCO3; bicarbonate

143

sodium chloride is ___% sodium

40%

144

one tsp of salt has ___g of NaCl

6g

145

sodium is reabsorbed by ___ and retained by ___

aldosterone; steroids

146

what are intracellular electrolyes

- K; potassium
- Mg; magnesium
- P; phosphorus

147

what are sources of potassium

meat, fruits, veg; banana, orange, tomato, potato, cantaloupe

148

potassium excretion is increased by ___

aldosterone

149

hypercalemia causes ___

cardiac irregularities

150

**what is the normal range for sodium

136-145 mEq/L

151

what is the normal range for potassium

3.5-5 mEq/L

152

what is the normal range for calcium

4.5-5.5 mEq/L

153

what is the normal range for magnesium

1.5-2.5 mEq/L

154

what is the normal range for chloride

96-106 mEq/L

155

what is the normal range for phosphorus

3-4.5 mEq/L

156

what is the effect of protein of fluid balance

exerts osmotic pressure

157

what is the function of albumin

exerts pressure on blood vessel wall that keeps water within; when alb drops, pressure drops, causing fluid to leak out-water moves from extracellular to interstitial space (edema)

158

what happens when albumin is low

when alb drops, pressure drops, causing fluid to leak out-water moves from extracellular to interstitial space (edema)

159

low serum protein leads to ___ and ___

edema and ascites

160

what is anasarca

extreme, generalized edema and widespread swelling of the skin due to effusion of fluid in extracellular space

161

anasarca is associated with what?

heart, liver, renal failure, and extreme protein/calorie malnutrition

162

a serum albumin of ___ is often associated with physical signs of fluid retention

2.8

163

**what are the symptoms of dehydration

nausea, dizziness, sunken eyes, fever, hyperventilation, excessive sweating, concentrated urine, dry inelastic skin, increase in solutes (BUN), tachycardia, headache, fatigue, decreased appetite, and rapid weight loss

164

what is the best assessment parameter for fluid status

serum sodium

165

___ releases hydrogen ions

acid

166

___ takes up hydrogen ios

base

167

what is a buffer?

mixture of acid and base components to protect against a strong acid or strong base

168

what is a major extracellular buffer

combination of carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate

169

the pH scale measures what

hydrogen ion concentration

170

lungs control supply of ___ to help with acid base balance

carbonic acid; hypoventilation retains acid and hyperventilation loss of acid

171

kidneys control supply of ___ to help with acid base balance

bicarbonate (base); excrete excess bicarbonate and level of base decreases

172

**a change in one side of the buffer brings about a ___ in the other side to ___

compensatory change; maintain balance, pH close to 7.4

173

in acid-base balance, a failure related to the pulmonary system is

respiratory

174

in acid-base balance, a failure related to the kidneys is

metabolic

175

**what do the following tell you and what are the normal values:
1. HCO3 (bicarb)
2. pCO2 (carbonic acid)

1. tell you if kidneys working; 24-28
2. tell you if lungs working; 35-45

176

**what is the function of vitamin A

skin, vision

177

**what are sources of vitamin A

yellow, orange fruits; dark green leafy vegetables; cantaloupe, fish, liver, carrots, fortified skim milk, apricots, sweet potato

178

**what are signs of vitamin A deficiency

night blindness, nyctalopia, xeropthalmia, bitot's spots, hyperkeratosis

179

**what is the earliest sign of vitamin A deficiency?

nyctalopia, reversible

180

**what is a sign of vitamin A deficiency that appears when deficiency is severe and prolonged

xeropthalmia -corneal damage, not reversible

181

**what is one of the least toxic vitamins

E

182

**what is the function of vitamin E

antioxidant; resists hemolysis of RBC

183

what are sources of vitamin K

spinach, kale, broccoli, green leafy vegetables

184

what vitamin is lost in cooking as temp of ph rises but is stable in acidic solution

b1 aka thiamin

185

what is the function of b1/thiamin

oxidation of CHO; increase CHO increased need for b1; metabolism of pyruvate

186

what are sources of b1/thiamin

grains, wheat germ, pork, liver

187

what are signs of b1/thiamin deficiency

beriberi, muscle weakness, foot drop, memory loss tachycardia, decreased erythrocyte transketolase, increased plasma pyruvate

188

what is the name for vitamin b1

thiamin

189

what is the name for vitamin b2

riboflavin

190

what are signs of b2/riboflavin deficiency

cheilosis (cracked lips), angular stomatitis (mouth corner cracks, sore throat), and magenta tongue

191

what are sources of folate

fortified dry cereal, liver, kidney, green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, lentils, beans

192

what is the name for b6

pyridoxine

193

what is the name for b12

cyanocobalamin

194

an increase in protein requires an increase in what vitamin

b6/pyridoxine

195

what is the most abundant mineral

calcium

196

what mineral is regulated by the parathyroid hormone

calcium

197

what aids calcium absorption

vitamin D, acid, lactose

198

what lowers serum calcium and how

calcitonin by inhibiting bone resorption

199

what are the functions of calcium in the body

blood clotting, cardiac function, nerve transmission, smooth muscle contractility

200

what are sources of phosphorus

meat, milk, poultry, eggs, fish, cheese

201

what is the absorbable form of iron

ferrous (stored form is ferritin)

202

what are signs of copper deficiency

rare: microcytic anemia, neutropenia

203

what is Wilson's disease

low serum copper, genetic absence of liver enzyme

204

what are sources of sulfur

meat, fish, eggs, poultry

205

what are the 2 minerals required in glucose metabolism

chromium and zinc

206

as E expenditure of the body increases, the need for ___, ___, ___, and ___ also increase

thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid