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Flashcards in Research Applications Deck (192)
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1

What are the 8 steps in research?

1. identify a relevant and important topic
2. develop well considered research question
3. research question leads to a hypothesis
4. prepare research protocol
5. organize materials and methods
6. collect and analyze data
7. study results and make decisions
8. study designs and checklists

2

How do you identify a relevant and important topic?

review published research literature related to the topic

3

What is a well-considered research question?

who, what, how; clear, simple statement in a few words, in a complete grammatical statement

4

What is a hypothesis?

a prediction of a relationship

5

How is a hypothesis often expressed?

as more than or less than; not equal to

6

what is a null hypothesis?

no relationship in population of data; any difference is result of sampling error; often has equal to expressed

7

What does a research objective do?

defines the study's purpose

8

A good hypothesis should be ___.

feasible, interesting, novel or innovative, ethical, and relevant

9

What is the PICO format?

population, intervention/exposure, comparison, and outcome

10

What is the research protocol?

methodology to solve the problem

11

What is PRISMA?

PRISMA randomized controlled trials: an evidence based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta analyses

12

What does PRISMA focus on?

reporting of reviews evaluating randomized trials, but can also be used as a bases for reporting systematic reviews of other types of research, particularly evaluations of interventions

13

What is MOOSE?

systematic review-observational MOOSE; meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) group

14

List the parts of the research report.

1. abstract
2. general introduction
3. review of existing literature
4. methodology
5. results
6. discussion
7. conclusions
8. implications

15

What is an abstract?

condensation of final report; has purpose of study, questions asked, scope and method, summary of conclusions

16

What is included in the general introduction?

objectives, definitions, background, limitations, order of presentation

17

What is the review of existing literature?

a summary of different points of view

18

What is included in the methodology?

statement of hypothesis, discussion of methods used

19

**What is included in the results section of a research report?

specific lab, clinical, objective or subjective findings

20

What is the discussion section of a research report?

interpretation of results, comparison with other studies; may be combines with results

21

Which section of a research report may the discussion section be combined with?

the results section

22

What does discussing the results address?

the research question, objective, and hypothesis; places results in context with existing science

23

What are conclusions in a research report?

brief summary of results; may have recommendations

24

What are implications in a research report?

how the information might be applied in practice

25

What is descriptive research?

describes state of nature at a point in time; provides baseline data and monitors changes over time

26

Descriptive research generates hypotheses regarding what?

determinants of a condition or disease

27

Does descriptive research prove cause and effect?

no; it establishes associations among factors, but does not allow causal relationships to be determined

28

List the types of descriptive research.

qualitative, case report, surveys, correlation/ecological studies

29

What is the purpose of qualitative research?

to explore a phenomenon of interest as a prelude to theory development; often preceded other research

30

When does qualitative research take place?

it often precedes other research

31

How is data collected for qualitative research?

through interviews, observations, questionnaires; may use focus group (Delphi)

32

What is the Delphi method in research?

use of a focus group

33

What is a case report/study/series?

report of observations on one subject or more than one subject

34

What does a case report help to identify?

variables important to the etiology, care, or outcomes of a particular condition

35

What does a case report describe?

it describes quantitatively the experiences of a group of cases with a disease or a condition in common

36

What are surveys and how are they used?

research designed to describe and quantify characteristics of a defined population; defined time frame; pinpoints problems

37

What are correlation or ecological studies?

studies that compare frequency of events (or disease rates) in different populations with the per capita consumption of certain dietary factors (ex. correlation between fish consumption and breast cancer incidence)

38

What is analytical research?

tests hypothesis concerning the effects of specific factors of interest and allows causal associations to be determined (can prove cause and effect); includes clinical trials, follow-up studies, and case control studies

39

Can analytical research prove cause and effect?

yes

40

What are the types of analytical research?

experimental model, quasi experimental design, cohort studies, case control studies, and cross sectional studies

41

What is the experimental model?

uses experimental and control groups; target populations are randomly chosen to be in either group

42

What is randomization?

dividing people into treatment or control groups without bias

43

**Does the experimental or control group receive the treatment in the experimental model?

experimental group; control group does not receive the treatment but may receive a placebo

44

What is a placebo?

gives the aura but not the substance of a service, removing the possibility of the Hawthorne effect

45

What is the Hawthorne effect?

a positive response due to attention that participants receive

46

When is a program considered successful in an experimental model?

differences are computed between the two groups; successful if the experimental group has improved more than the control group

47

Why is the experimental model difficult to run?

- not enough people for the control group
- may not feel it is ethical to deny a service

48

**What is the quasi-experimental design?

time series- series of measurements at periodic intervals before the programs begins and after it ends; shows whether the measurements before and after a program ate a continuation of a previous pattern or whether they indicate a noteworthy change

49

What does the quasi-experimental design show?

whether the measurements before and after a program ate a continuation of a previous pattern or whether they indicate a noteworthy change

50

What is a cohort?

any group whose members have something in common

51

What are cohort studies?

group of people who have something in common are followed over time; ex. cohort of healthy people followed through time to see if they develop a specific disease

52

Cohort studies are also sometimes called ___?

incidence studies; they track the frequency of new cases (newly diagnosed) of a disease

53

??Define incidence?

??rate of newly diagnosed

54

??Define prevalence?

??total number of

55

Cohort studies are carried out over what period of time?

long period of time (longitudinal), and prospective (future oriented)

56

How are retrospective cohort studies conducted and what is looked for?

use existing data; look back for relationship between exposure factors and outcomes

57

What are case control studies?

focus on specific disease; those with the disease are compared with a group without the disease, but otherwise similar in characteristics; both groups recall past behaviors, to study how the groups differ

58

**What are cross-sectional studies/prevalence?

one time data collection counting all of the cases of a specific disease among a group of people at a particular time; **a snap-shot look at one point in time

59

What does a cross-sectional study/prevalence look at?

one point in time; describes current, not past or future events

60

What does IRB stand for?

institutional review board

61

The IRB is under ___.

FDA

62

What is the IRB?

a committee established to review and approve research involving human subjects, to ensure it is conducted within all ethical and federal guidelines

63

What are other names for the IRB?

(IEC) Independent Ethics Committee; (ERB) Ethical Review Board; (REB) Research Ethics Board

64

What is relevance or validity?

ability to measure phenomenon it intends to measure

65

**What is internal validity?

tests whether the difference between the two groups is real (has the experimental group really performed differently)

66

What is external validity?

tests whether or not a generalization can be made from the study to a larger population

67

**What is analysis of variance?

tool used to evaluate validity

68

**What does ANOVA stand for?

analysis of variance

69

**What does analysis of variance ask?

whether the difference between samples is a reliable one that would be repeated; are there one or more significant differences ANYWHERE among the samples?

70

**When is ANOVA used?

when several products compete against one another

71

**What does ANOVA compare?

the variance between groups with the variance within groups

72

What is reliability?

consistency or reproducibility of test results; test then retest later-are results similar?

73

What are parallel forms and how is reliability determined?

two separate but similar forms of the same test at the same time; reliability is determined by the degree to which the sets of scores coincide

74

What are split halves and how is reliability determined?

divide the test in half; reliability is determined by the degree of similarity of results

75

What is precision?

amount of variation that occurs randomly

76

Less random variation results in ___ precision in the measurement and ___ reliability.

greater; greater

77

When is specificity and sensitivity used?

If protocol involves screening for a particular condition

78

What do specificity and sensitivity evaluate?

the cut-off value being used

79

What is sensitivity?

the proportion of afflicted individuals who test positive

80

What is specificity?

proportion of non-afflicted identified as non-afflicted

81

What are variables?

characteristics that may have different values from observation to observation

82

What are nominal variables?

non-ordinal; variables that fit into a category with no special order

83

What are examples of nominal variables?

gender, race, marital status, present or absent

84

What are rank order variables?

ordinal; observations compared with each other and put in order, perhaps from best to worst, or state of disease from 1 to 4

85

What are numerical discrete variables?

data with numbers (numbers of clinical visits)

86

What are numerical continuous variables?

Underlying continuous scales (blood pressure)

87

Dependent variables are ___. Independent variables are ___.

outcomes; what you manipulate

88

___ variables are outcomes; ___ variables are what you manipulate in your study.

dependent; independent

89

Treatments for diseases are ___ variables.

independent you can change the treatment to affect the disease

90

Name the independent and dependent variables in the following sentence. Effect cholesterol levels have on heart attacks.

Independent- cholesterol levels
Dependent- heart attacks

91

?What is probability?

?each segment of the population will be represented in the sample

92

What is randomization?

select a sample from the whole population so the characteristics of each of the units approximates the characteristics of the whole population

93

What is non-probability?

no way of forecasting that each element in the population will be represented in the sample

94

What is convenience or accidental?

take units as they arrive on the scene- no attempt to control bias

95

What is quota?

select units in the same ratio as they are found in the general population

96

What are measures of central of tendency?

the center of any mass of data

97

**What are the three measures of central tendency?

mean, median, and mode

98

What is the arithmetic mean? How is it calculated?

simple average; total the values of all observations and divide by the number of observations

99

What is the median? How is it calculated?

Midpoint; arrange observations from low to high and count the number of values; median is the value at the midpoint; if there is an odd number of numbers the median will be the exact center. If there is an even number of numbers, the median is the average of the two numbers closest to the center

100

What is the mode?

most frequently occurring value; prediction most likely to be right

101

What are measures of dispersion?

how values are distributed about the mean

102

What are types of measures of dispersion?

range and standard deviation

103

What is the range?

the difference between the lowest and highest values in the distribution

104

How is the range calculated?

subtracted lower from higher value; based only on extreme values

105

What is standard deviation?

indicates degree of dispersion about the mean value of a distribution

106

How is the standard deviation calculated?

square root of the sum of the squared deviations of each value from the mean, divided by the number of observations

107

Describe the curve of a normal distribution?

as it falls away from the peak on either side the slope is convex (bulging outward) at point of inflection it become concave (bulging inward) as slope begins to level off

108

Distance between the ___ and the ___ on either side is equal to the standard deviation.

mean; point of inflection

109

Distance between the mean and the point of inflection on either side is equal to the ___.

standard deviation

110

**About ___% of all observations in a normal distribution lie within 1 SD of the mean.

68% (2/3)

111

**About 2/3 (68%) of all observations in a normal distribution lie within ___ SD of the mean.

1 SD of the mean

112

What is the range within 1 SD of the mean called?

M + 1 SD of the mean (mean + 1 SD)

113

___% of the observations lie outside the range?

32% (16% lie below (-1 SD) and 16% lie above (+1 SD))

114

___% lie within about 2 SD either side of the mean.

95%

115

Where does the mean lie?

at the top of the curve

116

What are correlations?

relationships between varying types of data

117

The closer point are to the line, the ___ the degree of the linear relationship.

stronger

118

The ___ point are to the line, the stronger the degree of the linear relationship.

closer

119

What is the linear correlation coefficient?

r; measures the degree to which the points in a scatter diagram cluster about a straight line

120

The value of r is always between ___ and ___.

-1 and 1

121

r = 1 when ___.

all points lie exactly on a straight line with a positive slope

122

r= ___ when all points lie exactly on a straight line with a positive slope.

1

123

r = -1 when ___.

all points lie exactly on a straight line with a negative slope

124

r= ___ when all points lie exactly on a straight line with a negative slope.

-1

125

**The closer r is to 1 or -1, the ___ the points tend to cluster about the line, and the ___ the degree of the linear relationship.

closer; stronger

126

**The closer r is to ___ or ___, the closer the points tend to cluster about the line, and the stronger the degree of the linear relationship.

1 or -1

127

The closer r is to 0, the ___ the points will be from the line.

more dispersed

128

The closer r is to ___, the more dispersed the points will be from the line.

0

129

if r = ___, there is no linear relationship

0

130

if r = 0, is there a linear relationship?

no

131

Describe the strength of correlation if r =0.0-0.2

very weak

132

Describe the strength of correlation if r =0.2-0.4

weak, low

133

Describe the strength of correlation if r =0.4-0.7

moderate

134

Describe the strength of correlation if r =0.7-0.9

strong, high

135

Describe the strength of correlation if r =0.9-1.0

very strong, very high

136

Describe the strength of correlation if
a. r =0.0-0.2
b. r =0.2-0.4
c. r =0.4-0.7
d. r =0.7-0.9
e. r =0.9-1.0

a. 0.0-0.2: very weak
b. 0.2-0.4: weak, low
c. 0.4-0.7: moderate
d. 0.7-0.9: strong, high
e. 0.9-1.0: very strong, very high

137

With perfect positive correlation r = ___.

+1.0

138

With perfect negative correlation r = ___.

-1.0

139

Describe the slope when r = 1

positive slope, upward to right

140

Describe the slope when r = -1

negative slope, upward to left

141

What is clinical significance?

a change of difference in outcomes that somebody cares about; the outcome must be relevant for patient care, public health, or the field of study. the change must be statistically significant, not due to chance.

142

The p value represents what?

level of significance

143

**The lower the p value, the ___ the significance of your results

higher

144

**The ___ the p value, the higher the significance of your results.

lower

145

**What is the level of significance if p ≤ .05?

significant differences, results are reliable

146

**What is the level of significance if p ≤ .01?

very significant difference, more reliable results

147

**What is the level of significance if p ≤ .0.0001?

very, very significant, reliable results

148

**What is the level of significance if p > .05?

not very significant difference; not reliable results

149

**What is the level of significance for the following p values:
a. p ≤ .05
b. p ≤ .01
c. p ≤ .0.0001
d. p > .05

a. p ≤ .05: significant differences, results are reliable
b. p ≤ .01: very significant difference, more reliable results
c. p ≤ .0.0001: very, very significant, reliable results
d. p > .05: not very significant difference; not reliable results

150

What does the p value show?

how strong or weak the evidence is in support of a hypothesis

151

Most will not accept results as statistically significant unless p___.

p<0.05

152

The ___ the p value, the higher is your confidence that the effect you observed is real.

smaller

153

The smaller the p value, the ___ is your confidence that the effect you observed is real.

higher

154

**What is a double blind study?

removes bias from research; neither the researcher nor the subject knows which group is receiving the treatment and which the placebo

155

**Define mortality.

rate of death

156

**Define morbidity.

state of disease

157

Define variable of interest.

what researchers are observing

158

Define population of interest.

describes a group about which the observations are made

159

What are descriptive statistics?

they summarize and describe aspects of a set of data

160

**What are inferential statistics?

techniques that allow conclusions to extend beyond an immediate data set

161

What are questions that inferential statistics answer?

- What is the probability that the results can be applied to a larger group?
- What can you infer from the results of your study?

162

What is a non-parametric test?

a test that does not depend on a normal distribution

163

What are dichotomous scores?

only two events are possible (ex. heads, tails)

164

What are continuous scores?

scores measured on a continuous scale

165

**What is a pilot study?

a scaled down version of the larger investigation; practice implementation; includes every step in the study, but is done on a small test group.

166

What can a pilot study help to determine?

whether a clinical trial, as planned, is feasible; are goals realistic and attainable?; will the study plan work?

167

What is a focus group?

a method of attaining information about a target group; small group who talk about the beliefs, opinions, problems; contributes attitudinal data

168

What is chi square?

χ2; tests whether or not there is a real difference between categories

169

When is the chi square test used?

with attributes that have more than 2 catgories

170

What does the chi square test compare?

the frequency with which we'd expect certain observations to occur with the frequency that actually occurred

171

What is a t test?

it tests the significance between the means of different populations; tests the null against alternative hypothesis

172

In a t-test, if the probability value is equal to less than the level set for significance, the ___ is rejected in favor of the ___.

null hypothesis; alternative hypothesis

173

In a t-test, if the probability value is ___, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

equal to less than the level set for significance

174

What is a histogram?

a block diagram whose blocks are proportional in area to the frequency in each call or group (frequency distribution of data)

175

What does a histogram summarize?

data from a process that has been collected over time

176

What is the EAL?

evidence analysis library; evidence based guidelines are developed by conducting a systematic review and then using the conclusion of the review to develop practice-based guidelines

177

Who summarizes the best available evidence for the EAL?

subject matter experts and trained analysts

178

The AND Evidence Analysis Library assists in what?

answering questions that may arise during the provision of nutrition care.

179

What is a line graph?

shows frequency on vertical scale and method of classification on the horizontal scale

180

What are bar charts?

show measurement only on the vertical axis; bars are arranged horizontally or vertically in ascending or descending order

181

What is a pie chart?

chart in which pieces add up to 100%

182

What is meta analysis?

a formal, defined system combining results of numerous small studies to increase the strength of belief in the observed effect

183

What are requirements for a study to be included in a meta analysis?

similar design, defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, published peer-reviewed studies

184

What does RCT stand for?

randomized clinical trial

185

What is the gold standard for clinical nutrition research?

randomized clinical trial with comparison placebo control group

186

Randomized clinical trials are best for evaluating what?

medical treatments; intervention with one or more treatments

187

What is parallel design RCT?

participants are randomly assigned to a particular treatment group and remain on that treatment throughout the study

188

What is a crossover design study?

each participant serves as his own control

189

What is a two period crossover design?

each participant would receive either intervention or control (A or B) in the first period, and the alternate treatment (A or B) in the second period

190

What is the major advantage of a crossover design?

variability is reduced because the measured effect of the intervention is the difference in that participant's response to the intervention and control

191

The decrease in variance of a crossover study design allows use of a ___ sample size.

smaller

192

Are crossover study designs generally longer or shorter?

longer; but each is "exposed" to all treatments