Flashcards in Nutrition Chapter 1 Deck (23):
What is the definition of nutrition?
the science of food: the nutrients and substances within food and their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease and the process by which the organism uses food
What is the definition of essential nutrients?
Substances essential for the health that the body can't supply on its own. They have a specific biological function, removing it leads to decline in biological function, adding it back can restore normal biological function
What are the 6 major classes of nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals
What is the chemical structure of carbohydrates?
hydrogen, carbon and oxygen
can be both small and large (simple and complex)
What is the chemical structure of proteins?
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen
formed by bonded amino acids
main structural material of the body
What is the chemical structure of lipids?
hydrogen, carbon and oxygen
can be solid or liquid (lipids and oils)
insoluble in water
structure of their dominant fatty acid determines saturation
What is the chemical structure of vitamins?
wide variety of chemical structures, can contain many different elements
enable many chemical reactions in the body
What is the chemical structure of minerals?
structurally simple and inorganic
What is the chemical structure of water?
hydrogen and oxygen
What are the energy values of carbs, proteins, lipids and alcohol?
C = 4, P = 4, L = 9, A = 7
Summarize the primary objectives of Healthy People 2020.
health promotion and disease prevention
1. help people attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease
2. promote health equity
3. address nutrient concerns
4. address physical activity concerns
What is the role of NHANES and other nutrition surveys?
determine what people are eating, determine what nutrients the population gets too much or not enough of, help set health outcomes
What is the scientific method?
1. phenomena are observed
2. questions are asked and hypothesized
4. incorrect explanations are rejected
5. results are scrutinized and evaluated by other scientists (published)
6. results are confirmed
What are signs of fraudulent nutrition claims?
claims of cure, new breakthrough, too good to be true, bias against medical community, no scientific credentials, poor study design, quick fix, dire warnings
What sources of nutrition information are reliable?
peer-reviewed, unbiased, replicated studies
What are phytochemicals and zoochemicals?
physiologically active compounds, components in plant foods and animal foods, not essential
What is a calorie?
the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C
What is a kilocalorie (kcal)?
the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water by 1 degree C
What nutrients do North Americans get too much of?
sodium, simple carbs, saturated and trans fats
What nutrients do North Americans get too little of?
vitamin A, vitamin E, iron and calcium (fiber)
How is nutritional status assessed?
Anthropometric (physical measurements)
Biochemical (blood nutrient concentrations)
Clinical (search for physical evidence)
Dietary (ask about food intake)
Environmental (lifestyle factors)
What are 3 limitations of nutritional assessment?
1. signs and symptoms are not specific
2. signs and symptoms take a long time to develop
3. long time lapse between poor nutrition and clinical evidence