Flashcards in Nutriton Chapter 11 Deck (11):
What are benefits of regular physical activity?
1. cardiovascular health - reduced risk of CVD, maintains healthy blood pressure, reduces inflammation, increases HDL, lowers LDL and TG
2. obesity - increases lean tissue, promotes loss of fat tissue, increases EE, prevents or reverses dev. or ob-related disease
3. diabetes - enhances insulin action, increases glucose uptake by muscle tissues
4. cancer - lowers risk of colon and recurrence of breast cancers
5. GI health - improves muscle action, lowers risk for gallstones and gallbladder disease
6. immune function - reduces susceptibility to infection
7. osteoporosis - increases bond density
8. fewer injuries - agility and balance
9. psychological health - decreased depression, anxiety, mental stress; increased well-being, self image and restful sleep
What is fitness?
the ability to do moderate to vigorous physical activity without undue fatigue
body's ability to withstand stress
ability to meet routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to rise to a physical challenge
What characteristics enable a body to preform physical activity?
muscle strength and endurance
healthy body composition
What is the objective of conditioning by training?
increases flexibility, endurance and strength
reach higher levels of fitness
What it the progressive overload principle?
How does skeletal muscle respond to physical activity?
Type I - slow twitch aka red cells
used to prolong low-intensity exercise
predominately oxidative (fat-burning) fibers
Type IIA and IIB - fast twitch
important for rapid movements, increased intensity
predominantly glycolytic fibers (carb-burning)
*proportion of each type determined by genetics
training can enhance capacity to produce ATP
How does the body respond to physical activity?
training forces the muscles to adapt to strength and exertion demands
hypertrophy - increases in cell size
atrophy - wasting away of tissue
What are the effects of aerobic exercise?
increases efficiency of the heart - lower blood pressure, lower resting heart rate, oxygen delivered to muscles easily, increased stroke volume, output (volume of blood discharged by the heart each minute), increased capillary density
*details on slide
What are the 2008 guidelines for physical activity?