Flashcards in Nutrition Chapter 2 Deck (25):
What are DRIs?
Dietary Reference Intakes
Include: EARs, EERs, RDAs, AIs, ULs
differ by life stage
What are RDAs?
Recommended Dietary Allowance
nutrient intake amount sufficient for 97-98% of the healthy population
Apply to individuals
What are EARs?
Estimated Average Requirements
nutrient intake amount sufficient for 50% of the healthy population
Apply to groups
Likely to not be deficient
What are AIs?
nutrient intake amount set for nutrients where evidence is lacking to set an RDA
What are ULs?
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
maximum amount of a nutrient you can intake without adverse effects
chronic daily use
What are EERs?
Estimated Energy Requirements
estimate of the kcal intake needed to match energy use of an average person
What is energy density?
What is nutrient density?
amount of nutrient/kcal (mg/kcal)
What are AMDRs?
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
provide guidance for intake of CHO, PRO, FAT
What are DVs?
used on food labels only
comprised of RDIs and DRVs
What are RDIs?
Reference Daily Intake
used for food labels
set for vitamins and minerals with an RDA
What are DRVs?
Daily Reference Values
used for food labels
set for energy producing nutrients and nutrients with no established RDA
What are the diet planning principles?
adequacy (enough nutrients)
balance (each food group in proper proportions)
calorie control (energy density)
moderation (portion size)
variety (within food groups)
What is fortification?
addition of nutrients that were either not present to begin with or above what was lost during processing
What is enrichment?
addition of nutrients that were lost during processing
What are the different types of claims on food labels?
nutrient content claims
What are nutrient content claims?
describe the nutrients in a food
i.e. "low in fat" "rich in Vitamin A"
must comply with FDA regulations
What are health claims?
describe a relationship between a disease and a nutrient or food
must be approved, have significant scientific agreement about validity
must use a may or might qualifier
i.e. "a diet low in sodium may reduce risk of hypertension"
What are structure/function claims?
describe how a nutrient affects human body structure or function
i.e. "iron builds strong bones"
do not focus on disease reduction risk
not FDA approved
What are DGAs? What are the 4 categories?
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
set every 5 years
foundation of gov't education and nutrition programs
1. balancing calories to manage weight
2. foods to reduce
3. foods to increase
4. building healthy eating patterns
What are the key recommendations from the 2010 DGAs?
Consume a variety of foods.
Choose fats wisely.
Shift to more plant based foods.
Be physically active.
Increase produce, whole grains, low-fat/fat free milk products.
Significantly reduce sugars, solid fats, refined grains and sodium.
How are the DRIs determined? When are they used?
Determined through observational and experimental studies.
Used to plan and assess diets for groups and individuals.
What are some criticisms of the original food guide pyramid (1992)?
too much emphasis on dairy
refined vs. whole grains
not specific about what type of fats
doesn't include physical activity
What are some criticisms about MyPyramid?
more of a logo than a guide
have to go to website for details
difficult to understand the moderation aspect