Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation Flashcards Preview

ER Biochem > Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation Deck (14):

describe how gestational diabetes can affect the fetus

  • screening for gestational diabetes = 24-28 weeks of gestation
  • can lead to fetal macrosomia


describe importance of DHA in pregnancy and lactation

omega-3 fatty acid 

  • pregnancy:
    • promotes fetal brain and eye development
  • foods = fish, eggs, flaxseed, walnuts


describe the importance of iron in preg. and lactation

  • expansion of maternal tissues, including RBC mass
  • build iron stores in fetal liver
  • maintain additional iron content of placenta
  • fetal development and hemoglobin formation in fetus


describe folate in preg. and lact.

  • required for purine and thymidine synthesis for nucleic acids 
  • increased maternal erythropoiesis increases folate needs during 2nd and 3rd trimester
  • suplementation is critical before and during the first 4 weeks of pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects (NTD)


describe important of calcim in preg. and lact.

  • mother does not need to consume more since there is increased absorption of Ca from the food
  • growth and development of bones and teeth
  • decrease risk of pregnancy related HPT and pre-eclampsia 


describe importance of vit. A in preg. and lact.

  • function:
    • regulation of gene expression
    • cell prolif. and differentiation
    • vision
    • immunity
  • increased vit. A supplements (>10,000 IU) are considered teratogenic


describe importance of zinc in preg. and lact

  • important for synthesis of DNA and RNA
  • poor nutritional zinc status:
    • low birth weight
    • premature delivery
    • congenital anomalies


describe importance of iodine deficiency in preg. and lact.

  • maternal iodine deficiency can lead to congenital hypothyroidism
    • may lead to cretinism and result in irreversible development delay and development of brain
  • babies have microglossia (large protruding tongue)


describe colostrum

  • produced by mother's breasts from birth to 4 days after
  • WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months


describe the mechanism of milk production

  • when the placenta is delivered, progesterone levels drop and trigger milk production
  • prolactin stimulates milk production
  • oxyocin stimulates milk excretion


describe the phases of breast milk

  • colostrum (early milk)
    • produced in late preg. to 4 days after birth
    • rich in antibodies (IgA)
  • transitional milk
    • from 4-10 days after delivery
    • lower in protein compared to colostrum
  • mature milk
    • approx >10 day til termination of breastfeeding


describe the micronutrients in breastmilk

  • adequacy of vitamins A and B6 
  • vit. D insufficient in breast milk 
    • advise taking babies into sunlight
  • breast milk is poor source of iron and zinc 
    • cannot be improved with maternal supplementation
      • prenatal stores sufficient for most babies until 6 months


describe infant benefits of breastfeeding

  • reduces risk of infxns
  • promotes development of the immature gut
  • reduces risk of infant allergy


describe breastfeeding and HIV

  • if there are no antiretroviral drugs and formula is available, avoid breastfeeding completely
  • if antiretroviral drugs are not available and formula feeding not possible, breastfeed for first few months of life (3-4 x lower risk of transmission than longer duration)