Nutrition and Aging Flashcards Preview

ER Biochem > Nutrition and Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition and Aging Deck (13):

describe protein energy malnutrition (PEM)

insufficient energy and/or protein for metabolic needs

  • PEM most common deficiency in elderly persons caused by:
    • inadequate intake
      • reversible
    • disease affecting metabolism, composition and appetite
      • called cachexia 


describe aging process and oxidative stress

A image thumb

describe what leads to loss of taste, smell and appetite

  • zinc, niacin and B-12 deficiency


describe the "under-nutrition carousel"

A image thumb

name the increased requirements for elderly

  • protein
  • calcium
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin B12
  • folate


name decreased requirement for elderly

  • vitamin A
  • calories


describe protein requirements

  • proteins required for nitrogen balance increases with decreasing energy intake


describe fat and cholesterol in elderly nutrition

  • 30% of diet, never to fall below 10% of total energy requirements 


describe fiber in elderly nutrition

  • dangers of low-fiber diet include constipation and diverticulosis
  • water insoluble fiber holds water within intestines
    • increased fecal bulk
    • reduces constipation and prevents colon diverticula
  • water soluble fiber increases viscosity intestinal contents


describe vitamin B12 in elderly nutrition

  • most common of deficiency cause in elderly is malabsorption of cobalamin in food
  • deficiency of B12 presents as:
    • hematological: macrocytosis and anemia
    • neurological: peripheral neuropathy


describe folic acid deficiency in elderly

  • associated with general malnutrition 
  • can present as megaloblastic macrocytic anemia
  • high folate associated with protection from cognitive impairment (assuming normal B12)


contrast osteoporsis vs osteomalacia

  • osteoporosis
    • degeneration of already constructed bone--brittle
  • osteomalacia
    • inadequate calcium absorption and vit. D deficiency
      • abnormality of the building process


describe lower vit. A requirements in elderly

  • vitamin A clearance from peripheral tissues may decrease in older adults
  • excess can lead to headache, lack of energy, anorexia