Neonatal Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neonatal Nutrition Deck (16):

___ shots are given to newborns to prevent VKDB

  • vitamin K1 (phylloquinone K1, specifically)
    • lipid-soluble vitamin that is needed for efficient blood clotting


why are neonates vit. K deficient

  • human breast milk is very low in vit. K
  • vitamin K1 mainly found in green vegetable which neonates don't eat
  • vitamin K2 is lacking in the newborns sterile intestine (no bacteria)


describe nutrient differences between human milk and other animals

  • humans have greatest lactose content but lowest protein content
  • human < cow < goat < sheep in protein content
    • need to dilute other animal's milk since high protein content makes harder to digest for babies


describe congenital lactase deficiency

  • lactase deficiency leads to severe osmotic diarrhea and dehydration when neonates are given milk
    • need lactose-free formula


describe galactosemia

  • galactose in urine indicates galactosemia
  • galactose and sugar alcohol galactitol accumulate in liver and other body cells
  • characteristics:
    • brain damage
    • cataracts
    • liver + kidney damage


____ is the only antibody that crosses the placenta and is passively transferred to the fetus

  • IgG is the only antibody that crosses the placenta and is passively transferred to the fetus


after birth, the immunoglobulins provided in breast milk are:

  • high levels of IgA followed by IgM and IgG
    • IgA protect against upper respiratory infxs
    • in infants, immunoglobulins are partially degraded which allow them to still function


human breast milk contains fatty acids of the ____ and ____ families

  • human milk contains the dietary essential fatty acids linoleic acid (w-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (w-3) and in addition, DHA and arachidonic acid 
  • these fatty acids can cross the BBB of the developing brain and are important for brain development 
  • a diet rich in fish oil increases the content of DHA in human breast milk 


DHA is the main structural component in _______

  • DHA is the main structural component in the lamellar membranes of rods and cones and provides the neccessary fluidity
    • DHA represents 2/3 of the fatty acids found in the retina where rhodopsin is imbedded and DHA is involved with cell signaling and other functions


describe the 2 types of proteins found in human milk

  • casein (40%): is a highly digestable protein and contains carbohydrates, calcium and phosphate
    • source of amino acids, especially proline
  • whey (60%): a source of high quality amino acids especially the branches amino acids. Leucine in particular stimulates protein synthesis and leads to the positive nitrogen balance in a growing baby
    • think of body-builders using whey


whey is a protein mixture composed of:

  • alpha-lactalbumin: rich in cysteine, tryptophan and provides precursors for glutathione and serotonin synthesis
  • lactoferrin: inhibits growth of iron-dependent bacteria in the GI tract of neonates 
  • lysozyme: enzyme that protects infant against e. coli and salmonella
  • immunoglobulins
  • maternal serum albumin


list the dietary essential amino acids in infants + adults

  • methionine
  • threonine
  • phenylalanine
  • tryptophan
  • lysine
  • arginine
  • valine, isoleucine and leucine (branches amino acids)


name the conditionally essential amino acids in infants

  • histidine
  • glutamine
  • cysteine
  • glycine
  • proline
  • tyrosine


infant nutrition has to provide ____ after 6 months of age...why?

infant nutrition has to provide iron after 6 months of age

  • during pregnancy the mother provides an inceased iron depot in the fetal liver which will supply the neonate up to 6 months after birth
  • uptake of dietary iron is needed in the 6 month old baby
  • human milk is low in iron and infants need about 11 mg of iron a day which cannot be provided via breast milk


describe dietary uptake of iron

  • inorganic iron uptake into the intestinal mucosal cells needs the iron in the ferrous state
  • heme-iron uptake is easier as it can be taken up in the ferric state
  • iron is stored within the cells bound to the protein ferritin
  • iron is released as ferrous iron and needs to be changed to ferric iron by ceruloplasmin


describe HMOs

human milk oligosaccharides

  • provide nutrients for "friendly" bacteria in the gut
  • HMOs fermented by bacteria result in an acidic pH in the gut which makes the environment unsuitable for pathogenic bacteria