Which form is CALCIUM absorbed in?
a. calcium carbonate
b. calcium lactate
c. calcium gluconate
d. calcium ion
What stimulates PTH secretion?
c. low serum calcium
d. high serum calcium
low serum calcium
Where is calbindin 28 located in vivo?
a. small intestine
What is a clinical indicator of a calcium deficiency?
b. peripheral neuropathy
c. bitot’s spots
Which may NOT cause a calcium toxicity?
b. antacid use
d. high sodium diet
high SODIUM diet
What can blood calcium levels be used to diagnose?
a. calcium deficiency
b. calcium insufficiency
c. calcium toxicity
Which is NOT a function of phosphorus?
a. enzyme regulation
c. BP regulation
d. bone crystallization (mineralization)
Which is a POOR source of phosphorus?
b. sunflower seeds
c. black beans
animals are source
Which is NOT a sign/symptom of a phosphorus deficiency?
c. decreased cardiac output
A patient consumes a high phosphorus diet (lots of legumes, meat, but NO dairy.) What would you expect?
d. wet beriberi
Where does the body get Ca+ to normalize blood values?
a. absorbed fat from diet
b. reabsorbed in kidney
c. from bone
d. released from endoplasmic reticulum
A and B could also be correct
Which mineral stabilizes ATP?
Where are you more likely to find magnesium and potassium?
Magnesium deficiency may present as ________; while a toxicity may present as _________
a. diarrhea; personality changes
b. tetany; peripheral neuropathy
c. muscle weakness; slurred speech
d. flushing; tremors
muscle weakness; slurred speech
Which mineral is utilized by kinases?
The average american does NOT meet their daily sodium requirement.
All hypertensive patients would benefit from a reduced sodium diet.
Which is a clinical indicator of both hypo- and hyperkalemia
a. cardiac arrhythmias
c. peripheral neuropathy
Which does NOT lead to hypocalcemia?
Which class of enzymes is required for digestion of heme iron prior to absorption?
Which carrier protein is synthesized in both the SI and LIVER?
d. all of the above
Which compound from chalet can decrease iron absorption?
c. lactic acid
Which compound does NOT contain a heme?
a. catechol dioxygenase
d. cytochrome P450
Which patient is most likely to have an iron deficiency?
a. 4 month old formula fed girl
b. 5 year old boy
c. 15 year old female gymnast
d. 35 year old male weight lifter
15 year old female gymnast
When a patient presents with an iron deficiency, which blood protein is elevated?
Which deficiency may lead to an iron deficiency?
Zinc is required for digestion of _________ and _______
a. lipids, folate
b. carbs, folic acid
c. folate, protein
d. lipids, nonheme iron
Zinc is required to release ________from the liver
b. vit. A
Which compound decreases zinc absorption?
c. citric acid
d. vitamin A
Which is the best source of zinc?
Which is a clinical indicator of a zinc deficiency?
a. peripheral neuropathy
b. decreased bone mineral density
c. diminished taste mechanism
d. metallic taste
diminished taste mechanism
Which antioxidant enzyme required for both zinc and copper?
b. cytosolic superoxide dismutase
c. mitochondrial superoxide dismutase
d. glutathione peroxidase
cytosolic superoxide dismutase
Supplements of ________ decrease copper absorption, while ________ supplements increase copper excretion
a. iron, zinc
b. vitamin A, vitamin D
c. calcium, sodium,
d. zinc, molybdenum
Which genetic disorder is associated with an increase in copper excretion leading to deficiency?
a. wilson’s disease
c. menkes syndrome
d. maple syrup urine disease
Which selenium deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy?
a. wilson’s disease
b. kashan’s disease
c. menkes syndrome
d. kashin-beck disease
heart disease in kids
What is your best source of selenium?
a. brazil nuts
d. white rice
Chromium is involved with secretion of ________
Which is a POOR source of chromium?
How many iodine molecules are part of thyroxine? (T4)
Which is an indicator of an iodine deficiency?