Nystagmus: effects, solutions and research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nystagmus: effects, solutions and research Deck (14):
1

what are the 2 classifications of nystagmus

- congenital - CN
- acquired - AN

2

give 3 other names for congenital nystagmus

- congenital idiopathic nystagmus CIN
- infantile idiopathic nystagmus IIN
- early onset nystagmus EON

3

what is the prevalence of nystagmus

1 in 1000

4

list 9 effects of nystagmus i.e. what does the person experience

- Poor quality vision

- Stable image (mostly): with congenital nystagmus

- Slow to see: takes longer to see, but can't be measured as its harder to acquire the target

- Changeable: eye movement changes throughout the day from factors such as, tiredness, stress etc so vision is not constant

- Null, visual field: null point = turn head to opposite direction to view the object, where the eyes stay still, this will affect their visual field

- Movement: can't see something moving = hard to see

- Clutter/scanning: more clutter = makes it harder to see

- Photophobia: the condition associated with nystagmus has photophobia, so it common in nystagmus px

- Balance/depth perception: is difficult

5

what is it important to keep in mind with null zones and children with nystagmus

must make sure the child is sitting in the correct position at school

6

what is visual acuity not a proper measure of

the severity of the nystagmus
can use VA to label somebody with nystagmus, but can't measure the amount of nystagmus, so is only good for a starting point

7

list all the 6 things that visual acuity does not take account for in nystagmus and what does this mean

- The null point/visual field impact
- Variability
- Time/scanning
- Movement and oscillopsia
- Clutter
- The physical and emotional impacts

This means VA tests under estimate nystagmus

8

list the 5 main patient expectations when they visit you about their nystagmus

- Answers to questions

- Cause, effect, solution
Effect = mainly things like driving
Solution = theres no medical solution to nystagmus

- Time to talk

- Help and information

- Hope

9

list 4 main practical issues with having nystagmus

- School: from age 7/8, when theres more visual tasks

- Driving: majority cannot see well enough to drive, is not safe enough even though can see number plate at 20m due to other factors e.g. slow reaction and variance

- Work: slower at work, cannot make eye contact esp when nervous

- Ageing: gets more common as get older, maybe due contribution of other factors e.g. presbyopia

10

list 5 social and 5 emotional issues with nystagmus

Social:
- Making friends
- Taking part
- Eye contact
- Missing cues: can see subtle changes
- “Ignoring” people: appear to as cannot see them

Emotional
- Feeling different
- Isolation
- Lacking confidence
- Image concerns
- Depression: high correlation with visual impairment, especially with acquired type as lots of life changes

11

give 2 examples of behaviour that nystagmus/VI can lead to and what conditions do you need to be wary of with nystagmus

- Anger and frustration e.g. with children in school who is too young to explain to teacher
- Misunderstandings

Be wary of diagnoses of autism, ADHD, dyspraxia, etc. with nystagmus

12

what are the medical options for ophthalmologists to treat nystagmus

The medical options are limited:
- Surgery: moving the null point to pp

- Drugs: no drugs developed for nystagmus, but for other purposes

13

as well as medical, give 4 other things that ophthalmologists can do to help patients with nystagmus

- Provide an accurate diagnosis: they cant really, but work on the basis of occlusion i.e. rule things out

- Offer a CVI: which makes a difference in things like school

- Explain impact

- Signpost to services

14

list 5 things optometrists can do for patients with nystagmus

- In some cases: identify / diagnose (especially acquired nystagmus)

- Glasses and CLs (but not for nystagmus)

- LVAs, prisms

- Explain the condition

- Support: education, driving, employment