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Flashcards in visual fields recap Deck (54)
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what is the incidence of visual field loss in the general public



name the two basic classifications of visual field methods

static and kinetic


how is the kinetic visual field assessment carried out

start from a non seeing area and move in until px detects the target


what is static perimetry the best technique for

the detection and investigation of early field loss


why is detection of early field loss crucial

to detect primary open angle glaucoma


name the two classifications/strategies of static perimetry

threshold and supra threshold


name the two types of threshold static perimetry

full threshold and SITA/ZATA


how does the full threshold strategy work

each location is thresholded sing a staircase procedure


how does the SITA/ZATA strategy work

it is a quicker version of the full threshold strategy


how does the supra threshold strategy work

stimuli are first presented at an intensity that is calculated to be above the patient's threshold, if the stimuli are seen, then it is assumed that no significant defect exists


list 7 advantages of the threshold strategies for testing visual fields

- sensitive to shallow field loss and early fluctuations in glaucomatous VF loss
- visual field progression (glaucoma)
- allows statistical analysis
- diagnostic information
- provides information about reliability of the data
- highly skilled perimetrist not needed
- reproducible VF test/testing conditions


name a disadvantage of the threshold strategy for testing visual fields

time consuming


name 3 advantages of the supra threshold strategy for testing visual fields

- multiple or single stimulus has enabled speed up of investigation and able to assess visual fields on every visit
- good screening test
- no need for highly trained perimetrist


name a disadvantage of the supra threshold strategy for testing visual fields

insensitivity to shallow visual field defects = poor detection of early POAG


name 3 types of visual field equipments for kinetic perimetry

- gross perimetry/confrontation
- arc perimeters
- certain bowl perimeters e.g. goldman, octopus


name 2 types of static perimeters and give examples of the manufacturers that do them

- automated perimeter - Humphrey field analyser and modern Henson models

- automated/semi-automated perimeters - Henson for supra threshold testing


explain how the automated static perimeter works

the decision making process of the examination strategy is exclusively controlled by the computer and does not require intervention of the operator


explain how the semiautomated static perimeter works

some field tests require the operator to control the examination strategy
e.g. we have to find the patients threshold, or during multiple stimulus when we have to ask the patient how many lights they can see


what test strategy will you use on a patient who has family history of glaucoma

SITA/ZATA fast threshold


when would it be useful to carry out gross perimetry/confrontation test on a patient

in investigating patients who will benefit from a more detailed investigation of their peripheral fields


what is found to be low with gross perimetry/confrontation test



if a patient has poor visual acuity, which test is best to analyse their visual fields

gross perimetry/confrontation test


if you require further peripheral investigation after using the gross perimetry/confrontation test on a patient, what other 2 options can you use

- kinetic methods on a bowl perimeter
- peripheral static methods on a HFA


should a rx be worn for gross perimetry/confrontation test and why

no prescription should be worn for a peripheral fields, because:
- peripheral acuity is poor whether the refractive error is corrected or not
- frames and the periphery of lenses can interfere with peripheral field


in which case may it be worth doing a peripheral field with and without the rx

very high refractive error: +/- 8D or more, too see if there is any difference


when carrying out static perimetry, and measureing the central 30 degrees of visual field, when must an rx be worn

if the rx is above -5,00D


what add should be used on top of a distance rx for a 40-44 y/o



what add should be used on top of a distance rx for a 45-49 y/o



for what age group should a +2.50 add be used on top of a distance rx



for what age group should a +3.00 add be used on top of a distance rx