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Flashcards in OB GYN and peds Deck (60)
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1

Breast Cancer

Common malignancy in females, fam hx with BRCA marker
Breast lump, retraction of nipple, edema, axillary node enlargement, sanguinous nipple discharge, tethering of skin
Biopsy, excision, chemo --> Breast specialist

2

Fibroadenoma:

Common benign breast mass
Painless, freely mobile lesion w/o axillary node involvement
Mammography to exclude cancer --> Breast specialist

3

Fibroadenosis/fibrocystic disease of the breast:

Common benign breast condition
Multiple painful lumps in both breasts worse in PMS and disappears after menses
Mammography to exclude cancer --> Breast specialist

4

Inflammatory breast cancer:

Rare + aggressive MC in African American women in 50's
Warm, red, swelling >1/3 of breast + peau d'orange and nipple retraction
Biopsy confirms diagnosis, refer to breast specialist

5

Mastitis:

Acute inflammation of breast during lactation caused by Staph aureus entering cracked nipples
Hot, painful and swollen breast
M.D. or hospital fr antibiotics

6

Paget's disease of the nipple:

Uncommon
Eczematous (red oozing, crusting) rash of nipple w/underlying breast cancer
Biopsy confirmatory refer to breast specialist

7

Cryptomenorrhea

Menstruating with no external evidence

8

Metorrhagia

Intermenstrual bleeding

9

Parity vs gravidity

# of times a woman has delivered a child
# of times a woman has been pregnant

10

Pap smear recommendations:

Begin @21, every two years in 30's if 3 normal pap smears in a row every 3 years, or women with hysterectomies who still have a cervix

11

Asherman's syndrome:

Caused by rigorous curettage for incomplete abortion in which most of the endometrial tissue has been removed and uterine cavity is replaced by fibrous tissue
Amenorrhea following D&C
Refer to gynecologist --> Dx confirmed by hysterctomy

12

Cystocele:

Herniation of bladder into anterior wall of vagina in older women with numerous children due to stretching of fascia supports of pelvic organs
Presents with feeling of heaviness in vulvar region, stress incontinence and bulge in anterior wall of the vagina
Refer to gynecologist

13

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding:

Irregular bleeding in absence of clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of structural abnormalities, inflammation or pregnancy MC blamed on hormone imbalances in women in 30-40's
Prolonged bleeding during menstruation with clots
Refer to gynecologist (dx of exclusion) co-manage after

14

Rectocele:

Herniation of rectum into posterior wall of vagina in older woman with numerous children due to stretching of fascial supports of pelvic organs
Feeling of heaviness in vulvar region, urge to defecate and bulge in posterior wall of vagina
Refer to gynecologist

15

Sheehan's syndrome:

Endocrine condition caused by death of anterior pituitary lobe associated with severe postpartum hemorrhage
Failure to lactate after delivery + amenorrhea, later loss of axillary and pubic hair and fatigue, low prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH confirm
Refer to endocrinologist

16

Turner syndrome:

Absence of one X in makeup of female pt
Short stature, web neck, underdeveloped breasts with widely spaced nipples, infantile genitalia
Gynecologist

17

Bluish discolouration of cervix and vagina

Chadwick's sign

18

Chloasma

Brownish discolouration over cheeks and nose (mask of pregnancy)

19

Softening of the intravaginal portion of the cervix

Goodell's sign

20

Softening of region between uterine body and cervix

Hegar's sign

21

McDonald's sign

Easy flexibility of the uterus on cervix

22

Enlarged sebaceous glands in the aerola in pregnancy

Montgomery's tubercles

23

Piscacek's sign

Softening at the site of implantation

24

EDC

Estimated date of confinement

25

Gestational age is from?

Last menstrual period

26

HELLP synrome

Hemolysis, elevated LFT, low platelets associated w/pre-eclampsia

27

Naegele's rule?

EDC = LMP + 7 days - months + 1 year

28

Clinically important and dangerous infections in pregnancy:

Toxoplasmosis - sporozoan type of protozoa spread by handling infected cat feces
Others/HIV
Rubella: single stranded enveloped icosahedra Toga RNA virus; droplet infxn
CMV - Double stranded DNA herpes type 5 virus; close intimate contact
Herpes: double stranded enveloped DNA herpes 2; close intimate contact
Syphilis: faintly gram - flexible spirochete; STI

29

Leopold's maneuvers

>20 weeks to establish fundal height (approximate gestation), location of back of fetus and brow, ID presenting part (Pawlick's grip)

30

Abruptio placenta

Premature separation of normally implanted placenta from uterus during late pregnancy; idiopathic
Sudden painful vaginal bleeding, ab pain with tender uterus
HOSPITAL for transab US