Flashcards in OB Mod IV terms Deck (83):
Artificial rupture of membranes (AROM)
A procedure in which the amniotic membranes are ruptured by a certified nurse-midwife or physician, using an instrument called an amniohook. Also known as an amniotomy
Pink-tinged mucous secretions resulting from rupture of small capillaries as the cervix effaces and dilates
A birth in which the buttocks and/ or feet are the presenting part rather than the head
The positional changes of the fetus as it moves through the birth canal during labor and birth. The positional changes are descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, restitution, and external rotation.
Appearance of the presenting fetal part at the vaginal orifice during labor.
Expansion of the external os from an opening a few millimeters in size to an opening large enough to allow the passage of the infant.
The time length of each contraction, measured from the beginning of the increment to the completion of the decrement.
Thinning and shortening of the cervix that occurs late in pregnancy or during labor.
The entrance of the fetal presenting part into the superior pelvic strait and the beginning of the descent through the pelvic canal.
Relationship of the fetal parts to one another. Normal fetal attitude is one of moderate flexion of the arms onto the chest and flexion of the legs onto the abdomen.
Relationship of the cephalocaudal axis (spinal column) of the fetus to the cephalocaudal axis (spinal column) of the woman. The fetus may be in a longitudinal or transverse lie.
Relationship of the landmark on the presenting fetal part to the front, sides, or back of the maternal pelvis.
The fetal body part that enters the maternal pelvis first. The three possible presentations are cephalic, shoulder, and breech.
In the fetus, unossified space, or soft spot, consisting of a strong band of connective tissue lying between the cranial bones of the skull.
The time between the beginning of one contraction and the beginning of the next contraction
The strength of a uterine contraction during acme.
Moving of the fetus and uterus downward into the pelvic cavity.
Presentations of the fetus into the birth canal that are not "normal"-that is, brow, face, shoulder, or breech presentations.
Shaping of the fetal head by overlapping of the cranial bones to facilitate movement through the birth canal during labor
The fetal part present in or on the cervical os.
Spontaneous rupture of membrates (SROM)
The breaking of the "water" or membranes marked by the expulsion of amniotic fluid from the vagina.
Relationship of the presenting fetal part to an imaginary line drawn between the pelvic ischial spines.
Fibrous connection of opposed joint surfaces, as in the skull.
Periodic increases in the baseline fetal heart rate.
Baseline fetal heart rate (BL FHR); the average fetal heart rate observed during a 10-minute period of monitoring.
(BL VAR) Changes in the fetal heart rate that result from the interplay between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems
Periodic decreases in the baseline fetal heart rate.
A periodic decrease in fetal heart rate from the normal baseline.
Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM)
A method of placing a fetal monitor on the fetus in order to obtain a continuous tracing of the FHR, which allows many characteristics of the fetal heart rate to be observed and evaluated.
Fetal blood sampling
A procedure to collect a small amount of blood from the umbilical cord or fetus during pregnancy to diagnose, treat, and monitor various fetal problems.
Fetal heart rate less than 110 beats/ min during a 10-minute period or longer.
Sustained fetal heart rate of 161 beats/ min or higher.
Intrauterine pressure catheter
A catheter that can be placed through the cervix into the uterus to measure uterine pressure during labor. Some types of catheters may be inserted for the purpose of infusing warmed saline to add additional intrauterine fluid when oligohydramnios is present.
Symmetrical decrease in fetal heart rate beginning at or after the peak of the contraction and returning to baseline only after the contraction has ended, indicating possible uteroplacental insufficiency and potential that the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygenation.
A series of four maneuvers designed to provide a systematic approach whereby the examiner may determine fetal presentation and position.
Periodic change in fetal heart rate caused by umbilical cord compression; decelerations vary in onset, occurrence, and waveform.
A scoring system used to evaluate newborns at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. The total score is achieved by assessing five signs: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. Each of the signs is assigned a score of 0, 1, or 2. The highest possible score is 10.
In hospitals or birthing centers, single rooms where the woman and her partner or other family members will stay for the labor, birth, recovery, and possibly the postpartum period. Also called labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum rooms or single-room maternity care.
A supportive companion who accompanies a laboring woman to provide emotional, physical, and informational support and acts as an advocate for the woman and her family.
A philosophy of care that integrates the family's values and potential contributions in the plans for and provision of care to the child.
1. Unduly rapid progression of labor 2. A birth in which no physician or certified nurse-midwife is in attendance
Unduly rapid progression of labor
A group of tranquilizers that potentiate the effects of narcotic analgesics without increasing unwanted side effects
Regional anesthesia effective through the first and second stages of labor.
A state of induced unconsciousness that may be achieved through intravenous injection, inhalation of anesthetic agents, or a combination of both methods.
Local infiltration anesthesia
Anesthesia accomplished by injecting an anesthetic agent into the intracutaneous, subcutaneous, and intramuscular areas of the perineum. Generally used at the time of birth, both in preparation for an episiotomy if one is needed and for episiotomy repair.
Injection of an anesthetizing agent at the pudendal nerve to produce numbness of the external genitals and the lower one third of the vagina, to facilitate childbirth and permit episiotomy if necessary.
The temporary and reversible loss of sensation produced by injecting an anesthetic agent (called a local anesthetic) into an area that will bring the agent into direct contact with nervous tissue.
Injection of local anesthetic agents so that they come into direct contact with nervous tissue.
Injection of a local anesthetic agent directly into the spinal fluid in the spinal canal to provide anesthesia for vaginal and cesarean births.
Partial or total premature separation of a normally implanted placenta.
Surgical procedure in which a stitch is placed in the cervix to prevent a spontaneous abortion or premature birth.
Painless dilatation of the cervix without contractions because of a structural or functional defect of the cervix. Also called incompetent cervix.
An excess of amniotic fluid, leading to overdistention of the uterus. Frequently seen in pregnant women who have diabetes, even if there is no coexisting fetal anomaly. Also called polyhydramnios.
Decreased amount of amniotic fluid, which may indicate a fetal urinary tract defect.
Abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment. Classification of type is based on proximity to the cervical os: total-completely covers the os; partial-covers a portion of the os; marginal-is in proximity to the os.
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)
Rupture may be PROM (premature), SROM (spontaneous), or AROM (artificial). Some clinicians may use the abbreviation RBOW (rupture of bag of waters).
Preterm labor (PTL)
Labor occurring between 20 and 38 weeks of pregnancy. Also called premature labor.
Use of medications to arrest preterm labor.
Amniotic fluid embolism
Amniotic fluid that has leaked into the chorionic plate and entered the maternal circulation. Also called anaphylactic syndrome of pregnancy.
Anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy
Amniotic fluid that has leaked into the chorionic plate and entered the maternal circulation. Also called amniotic fluid embolism.
Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)
A condition in which the fetal head is of such a shape or size, or in such a position, that it cannot pass through the maternal pelvis.
Difficult labor due to mechanical factors produced by the fetus or the maternal pelvis or due to inadequate uterine or other muscular activity.
Corrective measures used to optimize the oxygen exchange within the maternal-fetal circulation.
A condition seen in neonates of large body size and high birth weight (more than 4000 to 4500 grams [8lb, 13 oz to 9 lb, 4 oz]), such as those born of mothers who are prediabetic and diabetic.
Death of a fetus or infant from the time of conception through the end of the newborn period 28 days after birth.
Persistent occiput posterior (POP) position
Malposition of the fetus in which the fetal occiput is posterior in the maternal pelvis.
Prolapsed umbilical cord
Umbilical cord that becomes trapped in the vagina before the fetus is born.
Pregnancy that lasts beyond 42 weeks' gestation.
Retention of the placenta beyond 30 minutes after birth.
Procedure used to infuse a sterile fluid (such as normal saline) through an intrauterine catheter into the uterus in an attempt to increase the fluid around the umbilical cord to decrease or prevent cord compression during labor contractions; also used to dilute thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
The artificial rupturing of the amniotic membrane.
Softening of the cervix; occurs normally as a physiologic process prior to labor or is stimulated to occur through the process of induction of labor.
Birth of fetus accomplished by performing a surgical incision through the maternal abdomen and uterus.
Incision of the perineum to facilitate birth and to avoid laceration of the perineum.
External cephalic version (ECV)
Procedure involving external manipulation of the maternal abdomen to change the presentation of the fetus from breech to cephalic.
A birth in which a set of instruments, known as forceps, is applied to the presenting part of the fetus to provide traction or to enable the fetal head to be rotated to an occiput-anterior position. Forceps-assisted birth is also known as instrumental delivery, operative delivery, or operative vaginal delivery.
When the umbilical cord is interposed between the cervix and the presenting part.
The stimulation of uterine contractions before the spontaneous onset of labor, with or without ruptured fetal membranes, for the purpose of accomplishing birth.
Type of version used to turn a second twin during a vaginal birth.
Trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC)
An attempt to have a vaginal birth after a previous cesarean birth.
Vacuum extraction: an obstetric procedure used to assist in the birth of a fetus by applying suction to the fetal head with a soft suction cup attached to a suction bottle (pump) by tubing; the device is placed against the occiput of the fetal head.