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Flashcards in OB Mod IV terms Deck (83):
1

Artificial rupture of membranes (AROM)

A procedure in which the amniotic membranes are ruptured by a certified nurse-midwife or physician, using an instrument called an amniohook. Also known as an amniotomy

2

Bloody show

Pink-tinged mucous secretions resulting from rupture of small capillaries as the cervix effaces and dilates

3

Breech presentation

A birth in which the buttocks and/ or feet are the presenting part rather than the head

4

Cardinal movements

The positional changes of the fetus as it moves through the birth canal during labor and birth. The positional changes are descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, restitution, and external rotation.

5

Crowning

Appearance of the presenting fetal part at the vaginal orifice during labor.

6

Dilatation

Expansion of the external os from an opening a few millimeters in size to an opening large enough to allow the passage of the infant.

7

Duration

The time length of each contraction, measured from the beginning of the increment to the completion of the decrement.

8

Effacement

Thinning and shortening of the cervix that occurs late in pregnancy or during labor.

9

Engagement

The entrance of the fetal presenting part into the superior pelvic strait and the beginning of the descent through the pelvic canal.

10

Fetal attitude

Relationship of the fetal parts to one another. Normal fetal attitude is one of moderate flexion of the arms onto the chest and flexion of the legs onto the abdomen.

11

Fetal lie

Relationship of the cephalocaudal axis (spinal column) of the fetus to the cephalocaudal axis (spinal column) of the woman. The fetus may be in a longitudinal or transverse lie.

12

Fetal position

Relationship of the landmark on the presenting fetal part to the front, sides, or back of the maternal pelvis.

13

Fetal presentation

The fetal body part that enters the maternal pelvis first. The three possible presentations are cephalic, shoulder, and breech.

14

Fontanelles

In the fetus, unossified space, or soft spot, consisting of a strong band of connective tissue lying between the cranial bones of the skull.

15

Frequency

The time between the beginning of one contraction and the beginning of the next contraction

16

Intensity

The strength of a uterine contraction during acme.

17

Lightening

Moving of the fetus and uterus downward into the pelvic cavity.

18

Malpresentations

Presentations of the fetus into the birth canal that are not "normal"-that is, brow, face, shoulder, or breech presentations.

19

Molding

Shaping of the fetal head by overlapping of the cranial bones to facilitate movement through the birth canal during labor

20

Presenting part

The fetal part present in or on the cervical os.

21

Spontaneous rupture of membrates (SROM)

The breaking of the "water" or membranes marked by the expulsion of amniotic fluid from the vagina.

22

Station

Relationship of the presenting fetal part to an imaginary line drawn between the pelvic ischial spines.

23

Sutures

Fibrous connection of opposed joint surfaces, as in the skull.

24

Accelerations

Periodic increases in the baseline fetal heart rate.

25

Baseline rate

Baseline fetal heart rate (BL FHR); the average fetal heart rate observed during a 10-minute period of monitoring.

26

Baseline variability

(BL VAR) Changes in the fetal heart rate that result from the interplay between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems

27

Decelerations

Periodic decreases in the baseline fetal heart rate.

28

Early deceleration

A periodic decrease in fetal heart rate from the normal baseline.

29

Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM)

A method of placing a fetal monitor on the fetus in order to obtain a continuous tracing of the FHR, which allows many characteristics of the fetal heart rate to be observed and evaluated.

30

Fetal blood sampling

A procedure to collect a small amount of blood from the umbilical cord or fetus during pregnancy to diagnose, treat, and monitor various fetal problems.

31

Fetal bradycardia

Fetal heart rate less than 110 beats/ min during a 10-minute period or longer.

32

Fetal tachycardia

Sustained fetal heart rate of 161 beats/ min or higher.

33

Intrauterine pressure catheter

A catheter that can be placed through the cervix into the uterus to measure uterine pressure during labor. Some types of catheters may be inserted for the purpose of infusing warmed saline to add additional intrauterine fluid when oligohydramnios is present.

34

Late deceleration

Symmetrical decrease in fetal heart rate beginning at or after the peak of the contraction and returning to baseline only after the contraction has ended, indicating possible uteroplacental insufficiency and potential that the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygenation.

35

Leopold's maneuvers

A series of four maneuvers designed to provide a systematic approach whereby the examiner may determine fetal presentation and position.

36

Variable decelerations

Periodic change in fetal heart rate caused by umbilical cord compression; decelerations vary in onset, occurrence, and waveform.

37

Apgar score

A scoring system used to evaluate newborns at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. The total score is achieved by assessing five signs: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. Each of the signs is assigned a score of 0, 1, or 2. The highest possible score is 10.

38

Birthing rooms

In hospitals or birthing centers, single rooms where the woman and her partner or other family members will stay for the labor, birth, recovery, and possibly the postpartum period. Also called labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum rooms or single-room maternity care.

39

Doula

A supportive companion who accompanies a laboring woman to provide emotional, physical, and informational support and acts as an advocate for the woman and her family.

40

Family-centered care

A philosophy of care that integrates the family's values and potential contributions in the plans for and provision of care to the child.

41

Precipitous birth

1. Unduly rapid progression of labor 2. A birth in which no physician or certified nurse-midwife is in attendance

42

Precipitous labor

Unduly rapid progression of labor

43

Analgesic potentiators

A group of tranquilizers that potentiate the effects of narcotic analgesics without increasing unwanted side effects

44

Epidural block

Regional anesthesia effective through the first and second stages of labor.

45

General anesthesia

A state of induced unconsciousness that may be achieved through intravenous injection, inhalation of anesthetic agents, or a combination of both methods.

46

Local infiltration anesthesia

Anesthesia accomplished by injecting an anesthetic agent into the intracutaneous, subcutaneous, and intramuscular areas of the perineum. Generally used at the time of birth, both in preparation for an episiotomy if one is needed and for episiotomy repair.

47

Pudendal block

Injection of an anesthetizing agent at the pudendal nerve to produce numbness of the external genitals and the lower one third of the vagina, to facilitate childbirth and permit episiotomy if necessary.

48

Regional analgesia

The temporary and reversible loss of sensation produced by injecting an anesthetic agent (called a local anesthetic) into an area that will bring the agent into direct contact with nervous tissue.

49

Regional anesthesia

Injection of local anesthetic agents so that they come into direct contact with nervous tissue.

50

Spinal block

Injection of a local anesthetic agent directly into the spinal fluid in the spinal canal to provide anesthesia for vaginal and cesarean births.

51

Abruptio placentae

Partial or total premature separation of a normally implanted placenta.

52

Cerclage

Surgical procedure in which a stitch is placed in the cervix to prevent a spontaneous abortion or premature birth.

53

Cervical insufficiency

Painless dilatation of the cervix without contractions because of a structural or functional defect of the cervix. Also called incompetent cervix.

54

Hydramnios

An excess of amniotic fluid, leading to overdistention of the uterus. Frequently seen in pregnant women who have diabetes, even if there is no coexisting fetal anomaly. Also called polyhydramnios.

55

Oligohydramnios

Decreased amount of amniotic fluid, which may indicate a fetal urinary tract defect.

56

Placenta previa

Abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment. Classification of type is based on proximity to the cervical os: total-completely covers the os; partial-covers a portion of the os; marginal-is in proximity to the os.

57

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)

Rupture may be PROM (premature), SROM (spontaneous), or AROM (artificial). Some clinicians may use the abbreviation RBOW (rupture of bag of waters).

58

Preterm labor (PTL)

Labor occurring between 20 and 38 weeks of pregnancy. Also called premature labor.

59

Tocolysis

Use of medications to arrest preterm labor.

60

Amniotic fluid embolism

Amniotic fluid that has leaked into the chorionic plate and entered the maternal circulation. Also called anaphylactic syndrome of pregnancy.

61

Anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy

Amniotic fluid that has leaked into the chorionic plate and entered the maternal circulation. Also called amniotic fluid embolism.

62

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)

A condition in which the fetal head is of such a shape or size, or in such a position, that it cannot pass through the maternal pelvis.

63

Dystocia

Difficult labor due to mechanical factors produced by the fetus or the maternal pelvis or due to inadequate uterine or other muscular activity.

64

Intrauterine resuscitation

Corrective measures used to optimize the oxygen exchange within the maternal-fetal circulation.

65

Macrosomia

A condition seen in neonates of large body size and high birth weight (more than 4000 to 4500 grams [8lb, 13 oz to 9 lb, 4 oz]), such as those born of mothers who are prediabetic and diabetic.

66

Perinatal loss

Death of a fetus or infant from the time of conception through the end of the newborn period 28 days after birth.

67

Persistent occiput posterior (POP) position

Malposition of the fetus in which the fetal occiput is posterior in the maternal pelvis.

68

Prolapsed umbilical cord

Umbilical cord that becomes trapped in the vagina before the fetus is born.

69

Postterm pregnancy

Pregnancy that lasts beyond 42 weeks' gestation.

70

Retained placenta

Retention of the placenta beyond 30 minutes after birth.

71

Amnioinfusion (AI)

Procedure used to infuse a sterile fluid (such as normal saline) through an intrauterine catheter into the uterus in an attempt to increase the fluid around the umbilical cord to decrease or prevent cord compression during labor contractions; also used to dilute thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

72

Amniotomy

The artificial rupturing of the amniotic membrane.

73

Cervical ripening

Softening of the cervix; occurs normally as a physiologic process prior to labor or is stimulated to occur through the process of induction of labor.

74

Cesarean birth

Birth of fetus accomplished by performing a surgical incision through the maternal abdomen and uterus.

75

Episiotomy

Incision of the perineum to facilitate birth and to avoid laceration of the perineum.

76

External cephalic version (ECV)

Procedure involving external manipulation of the maternal abdomen to change the presentation of the fetus from breech to cephalic.

77

Forceps-assisted birth

A birth in which a set of instruments, known as forceps, is applied to the presenting part of the fetus to provide traction or to enable the fetal head to be rotated to an occiput-anterior position. Forceps-assisted birth is also known as instrumental delivery, operative delivery, or operative vaginal delivery.

78

Funic presentation

When the umbilical cord is interposed between the cervix and the presenting part.

79

Labor induction

The stimulation of uterine contractions before the spontaneous onset of labor, with or without ruptured fetal membranes, for the purpose of accomplishing birth.

80

Podalic version

Type of version used to turn a second twin during a vaginal birth.

81

Trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC)

An attempt to have a vaginal birth after a previous cesarean birth.

82

Vacuum-assisted birth

Vacuum extraction: an obstetric procedure used to assist in the birth of a fetus by applying suction to the fetal head with a soft suction cup attached to a suction bottle (pump) by tubing; the device is placed against the occiput of the fetal head.

83

Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)

Practice of permitting a trial of labor and possible vaginal birth for women following a previous cesarean birth for nonrecurring causes such as fetal distress or placenta previa.