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Flashcards in OB Mod III terms Deck (190):
1

Ampulla

The outer two-thirds of the fallopian tube; fertilization of the ovum by a spermatozoon usually occurs here.

2

Areola

Pigmented ring surrounding the nipple of the breast.

3

Broad ligament

A ligament that keeps the uterus centrally placed and provides stability within the pelvic cavity. It is a double layer that is continuous with the abdominal peritoneum. The broad ligament covers the uterus anteriorly and posteriorly and extends outward from the uterus to enfold the fallopian tubes.

4

Cardinal ligaments

1The chief uterine supports, the cardinal ligaments suspend the uterus from the side walls of the true pelvis. Also known as Mackenrodt's or transverse cerical ligaments, they arise from the sides of the pelvic walls and attach the cervix in the upper vagina. They prevent uterine prolapse and support the upper vagina.

5

Cervix

The "neck" between the external os and the body of the uterus. The lower end of the cervix extends into the vagina.

6

Conjugate vera

The true conjugate, which extends from the middle of the sacral promontory to the middle of the pubic crest.

7

Cornua

The elongated portion of the uterus where the fallopian tubes enter.

8

Corpus

The upper two-thirds of the uterus.

9

Diagonal conjugate

An ateroposterior diameter that extends from the subpubic angle to the middle of the sacral promontory and is typically 12.5 cm. One of the three diameters that are used to assess the size and shape of the pelvic inlet.

10

Endometrium

The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the uterus.

11

Estrogens

The hormones estradiol and estrone, produced by the ovary.

12

Fallopian tubes

Tubes that extend from the lateral angle of the uterus and terminate near the ovary; they serve as a passageway for the ovum from the ovary to the uterus and for the spermatozoa from the uterus toward the ovary. Also called oviducts and uterine tubes.

13

False pelvis

The portion above the pelvic brim, or linea terminalis, that serves to support the weight of the enlarged pregnant uterus and direct the presenting fetal part into the true pelvis below.

14

Female reproductive cycle (FRC)

The monthly rhythmic changes in sexually mature women.

15

Fimbria

The funnel-like structure at the abdominal opening of the uterine tube that has many fingerlike projections (fimbriae) reaching out to the ovary.

16

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary during the first half of the menstrual cycle, stimulating development of the graafian follicle.

17

Fundus

The upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes.

18

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.

19

Graafian follicle

The ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum; it secretes estrogens.

20

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

A hormone produced by the chorionic villi and found in the urine of pregnant women. Also called prolan.

21

Infundibulopelvic ligament

The ligament that suspends and supports the ovaries. It arises from the outer third of the broad ligament and contains the ovarian vessels and nerves.

22

Ischial spines

Prominences that arise near the junction of the ilium and ischium and jut into the pelvic cavity; used as a reference point during labor to evaluate the descent of the fetal head into the birth canal.

23

Isthmus

The straight, narrow part of the fallopian tube with a thick muscular wall and an opening (lumen) 2 to 3 mm in diameter; the sight of tubal ligation. Also, a constriction in the uterus that is located above the cervix and below the corpus.

24

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Anterior pituitary hormone responsible for stimulating ovulation and for development of the corpus luteum.

25

Myometrium

Uterine muscular structure.

26

Nidation

Implantation of a fertilized ovum in the endometrium.

27

Obstetric conjugate

Distance from the middle of the sacral promontory to an area approximately 1 cm below the pubic crest.

28

Ovarian ligaments

Ligaments that anchor the lower pole of the ovary to the cornua of the uterus. They are surrounded by muscle fibers that allow the ligaments to contract.

29

Ovulation

Normal process of discharging a mature ovum from an ovary approximately 14 days prior to the onset of menses.

30

Pelvic cavity

The lower portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the urinary bladder, the rectum, and internal parts of the reproductive system. The pelvic cavity is divided into the false pelvis and the true pelvis.

31

Pelvic diaphragm

Part of the pelvic floor composed of deep fascia and the levator ani and the coccygeal muscles.

32

Pelvic inlet

Upper border of the true pelvis.

33

Pelvic outlet

Lower border of the true pelvis.

34

Perimetrium

1The outermost layer of the corpus of the uterus. Also known as the serosal layer.

35

Progesterone

A hormone produced by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta whose function is to stimulate proliferation of the endometrium to facilitate growth of the embryo.

36

Prostaglandins (PGs)

Complex lipid compounds synthesized by many cells in the body.

37

Pubis

Pertaining to the pubes or pubic area.

38

Round ligaments

Ligaments that arise from the sides of the uterus near the fallopian tube insertions. They extend outward between the folds of the broad ligament, passing through the inguinal ring and canals and eventually fusing with the connective tissue of the labia majora.

39

Sacral promontory

A projection into the pelvic cavity on the anterior upper portion of the sacrum; serves as an obstetric guide in determining pelvic measurements.

40

Testosterone

The male hormone; responsible for the development of secondary male characteristics.

41

Transverse diameter

The largest diameter of the pelvic inlet; helps determine the shape of the inlet.

42

True pelvis

The portion that lies below the linea terminalis, made up of the inlet, cavity, and outlet.

43

Uterosacral ligaments

Ligaments that provide support for the uterus and cervix at the level of the ischial spines. They arise on each side of the pelvis from the posterior wall of the uterus and sweep back around the rectum to insert on the sides of the first and second sacral vertebrae.

44

Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which the fertilized ovum is implanted and in which the developing fetus is nourished until birth.

45

Vagina

The musculomembranous tube or passageway located between the external genitals and the uterus of a woman.

46

Acrosomal reaction

Breakdown of hyaluronic acid in the corona radiate by enzymes from the heads of sperm; allows one spermatozoon to penetrate the ovum zona pellucida.

47

Amnion

The inner of the two membranes that form the sac containing the fetus and the amniotic fluid.

48

Amniotic fluid

The liquid surrounding the fetus in utero. It absorbs shocks, permits fetal movement, and prevents heat loss.

49

Bag of waters (BOW)

The membrane containing the amniotic fluid and the fetus.

50

Blastocyst

The inner solid mass of cells within the morula.

51

Capacitation

Removal of the plasma membrane overlying the spermatozoa's acrosomal area with the loss of seminal plasma proteins and the glycoprotein coat. If the glycoprotein coat is not removed, the sperm will not be able to penetrate the ovum.

52

Chorion

The fetal membrane closest to the intrauterine wall that gives rise to the placenta and continues as the outer membrane surrounding the amnion.

53

Cleavage

Rapid mitotic division of the zygote; cells produced are called blastomeres.

54

Cotyledons

One of the rounded portions into which the placenta's uterine surface is divided, consisting of a mass of villi, fetal vessels, and an intervillous space.

55

Decidua basalis

The part of the decidua that unites with the chorion to form the placenta. It is shed in lochial discharge after childbirth.

56

Decidua capsularis

The part of the decidua surrounding the chorionic sac.

57

Decidua vera (parietalis)

Nonplacental decidua lining the uterus.

58

Diploid number of chromosomes

Containing a set of maternal and a set of paternal chromosomes; in humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is 46.

59

Ductus arteriosus

A communication channel between the main pulmonary artery and the aorta of the fetus. It is obliterated after birth by rising PO2 and changes in intravascular pressure in the presence of normal pulmonary functioning. It normally becomes a ligament after birth but sometimes remains patent (patent ductus arteriosus, a treatable condition).

60

Ductus venosus

A fetal blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava, bypassing the liver, it becomes a ligament after birth.

61

Ectoderm

Outer layer of cells in the developing embryo that gives rise to the skin, nails, and hair.

62

Embryo

The early stage of development of the young of any organism. In humans the embryonic period is from about 2 to 8 weeks' gestation and is characterized by cellular differentiation and predominantly hyperplastic growth.

63

Embryonic membranes

The amnion and chorion.

64

Endoderm

The inner layer of cells in the developing embryo that gives rise to internal organs such as the intestines.

65

Fertilization

Impregnation of an ovum by a spermatozoon; conception.

66

Fetus

The child in utero from about the seventh to ninth week of gestation until birth.

67

Foramen ovale

Special opening between the atria of the fetal heart. Normally, the opening closes shortly after birth; if it remains open, it can be repaired surgically.

68

Gametes

Female or male germ cell; contains a haploid number of chromosomes.

69

Gametogenesis

The process by which germ cells are produced.

70

Haploid number of chromosomes

Half the diploid number of chromosomes. In humans there are 23 chromosomes, the haploid number, in each germ cell.

71

Lanugo

Fine, downy hair found on all body parts of the fetus, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, after 20 weeks' gestation.

72

Meiosis

The process of cell division that occurs in the maturation of sperm and ova that decreases their number of chromosomes by one-half.

73

Mesoderm

The intermediate layer of germ cells in the embryo that gives rise to connective tissue, bone marrow, muscles, blood, lymphoid tissue, and epithelial tissue.

74

Mitosis

Process of cell division whereby both daughter cells have the same number an pattern of chromosomes as the original cell.

75

Morula

Developmental stage of the fertilized ovum in which there is a solid mass of cells.

76

Placenta

Specialized disk-shaped organ that connects the fetus to the uterine wall for gas and nutrient exchange. Also called afterbirth.

77

Postconception age periods

Period of time in embryonic/ fetal development calculated from the time of fertilization of the ovum.

78

Teratogen

Nongenetic factors that can produce malformations of the fetus.

79

Trophoblast

The outer layer of the blastoderm that will eventually establish the nutrient relationship with the uterine endometrium.

80

Umbilical cord

The structure connecting the placenta to the umbilicus of the fetus and through which nutrients from the woman are exchanged for wastes from the fetus.

81

Vernix caseosa

A protective, cheeselike whitish substance made up of sebum and desqumated epithelial cells that is present on the fetal skin.

82

Wharton's jelly

Yellow-white gelatinous material surrounding the vessels of the umbilical cord.

83

Zygote

A fertilized egg.

84

Birth preference plan

A written document prepared by expectant parents that is used to identify available options in the birth setting and aspects of the childbearing experience that are most important to them.

85

Doula

A supportive companion who accompanies a laboring woman to provide emotional, physical, and informational support and acts as an advocate for the woman and her family.

86

LaLeche League

A nonprofit organization that promotes breastfeeding and provides information on and assistance with breastfeeding.

87

Prenatal education

Programs offered to expectant families, adolescents, women, or partners to provide education regarding the pregnancy, labor, and birth experience.

88

Ballottement

A technique of palpation used to detect or examine a floating object in the body. In obstetrics, the fetus, when pushed, floats away and then returns to touch the examiner's fingers.

89

Braxton Hicks contractions

Intermittent painless contractions of the uterus that may occur every 10 to 20 minutes. They occur more frequently toward the end of pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken for true labor signs.

90

Chadwick's sign

An objective change or probable sign of pregnancy, is a blue-purple discoloration of the cervix caused by increased vascularization of the uterus during pregnancy.

91

Chloasma (melisma gravidarum)

Brownish pigmentation over the bridge of the nose and cheeks during pregnancy and in some women who are taking oral contraceptives. Also called "the mask of pregnancy".

92

Couvade

In some cultures, the male's observance of certain rituals and taboos to signify the transition to fatherhood.

93

Diastasis recti

Separation of the recti abdominis muscles along the median line. In women it is seen with repeated childbirths or multiple gestation. In the newborn, it is usually caused by incomplete development.

94

Goodell's sign

Softening of the cervix that occurs during the second month of pregnancy.

95

Hegar's sign

A softening of the lower uterine segment found upon palpation in the second or third month of pregnancy.

96

Linea nigra

The line of darker pigmentation extending from the umbilicus to the pubis noted in some women during the later months of pregnancy.

97

McDonald's sign

A probable sign of pregnancy characterized by an ease of flexing in the body of the uterus against the cervix.

98

Morning sickness

A term that refers to the nausea and vomiting that a woman may experience in early pregnancy. This lay term is sometimes used because these symptoms frequently occur in the early part of the day and disappear within a few hours.

99

Mucous plug

A collection of thick mucous that blocks the cervical canal during pregnancy. Also called aperculum.

100

Physiologic anemia of pregnancy

Apparent anemia that results because during pregnancy the plasma volume increases more than the erythrocytes increase.

101

Quickening

The first fetal movements felt by the pregnant woman, usually between 16 and 18 weeks gestation.

102

Striae (striae gravidarum)

Stretch marks; shiny reddish lines that appear on the abdomen, breasts, thighs, and buttocks of pregnant women as a result of stretching the skin.

103

Supine hypotensive syndrome

Refers to a condition that can develop during pregnancy when the enlarging uterus puts pressure on the vena cava when the woman is supine. This pressure interferes with returning blood flow and produces a marked decrease in blood pressure with accompanying dizziness, pallor, and clamminess, which can be corrected by having the woman lie on her left side. Also called vena caval syndrome or aortocaval compression.

104

Abortion

Loss of pregnancy before the fetus is viable outside the uterus; miscarriage.

105

Antepartum

Time between conception and the onset of labor; usually used to describe the period during which a woman is pregnant.

106

Diagonal conjugate

An ateroposterior diameter that extends from the subpubic angle to the middle of the sacral promontory and is typically 12.5 cm. One of three diameters that are used to assess the size and shape of the pelvic inlet.

107

Early term

Births occurring between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days.

108

Estimated date of birth (EDB)

During a pregnancy, the approximate date when childbirth will occur; the "due date".

109

Full term

Births occurring between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days.

110

Gestation

The number of weeks of pregnancy since the first day of the last menstrual period.

111

Gravida

A pregnant woman.

112

Intrapartum

Time from the onset of true labor until the birth of the infant and placenta.

113

Later term

Births occurring between 41 weeks 0 days through 41 weeks 6 days.

114

Multigravida

Woman who has been pregnant more than once.

115

Multipara

Woman who has had more than one pregnancy in which the fetus was viable.

116

Nagele's rule

A method of determining the estimated date of birth (EDB): after obtaining the first day of the last menstrual period, subtract 3 months and add 7 days.

117

Nulligravida

A woman who has never been pregnant.

118

Nullipara

A woman who has not delivered a viable fetus.

119

Obstetric conjugate

Distance from the middle of the sacral promontory to an area approximately 1 cm below the pubic crest.

120

Para

A woman who has borne offspring who reached the age of viability.

121

Postpartum

Describing the period after giving birth.

122

Postterm labor

Labor that occurs after 42 gestation.

123

Preterm or premature labor

Labor occurring between 20 and 38 weeks of pregnancy.

124

Primigravida

A woman who is pregnant for the first time.

125

Primipara

A woman who has given birth to her first child (past the point of viability), whether that child is living or was alive at birth.

126

Risk factors

Any findings that suggest the pregnancy may have a negative outcome, for either the woman or her unborn child.

127

Stillbirth

The delivery of a dead infant.

128

Term

The normal duration of pregnancy.

129

Centering Pregnancy

A model of prenatal health care designed to empower women to choose health-promoting behaviors and, as a result, improve prenatal care outcomes.

130

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Syndrome caused by maternal alcohol ingestion and characterized by microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, short palpebral fissures, and maxillary hypoplasia.

131

Kegel exercises

Perineal muscle tightening that strengthens the pubococcygeus muscle and increases its tone.

132

Leukorrhea

Mucous discharge from the vagina or cervical canal that may be normal or pathologic, as in the presence of infection.

133

Lightening

Moving of the fetus and uterus downward into the pelvic cavity.

134

Pelvic tilt

Exercise designed to reduce back strain and strengthen abdominal muscle tone. Also called pelvic rocking.

135

Ptyalism

Excessive salivation.

136

Calorie (cal)

Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree centigrade.

137

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

A set of nutrient values that can be used to assess and plan intake for individuals of different ages.

138

Folic acid

A member of the vitamin B complex, required for amino acid metabolism, DNA synthesis, and production of red blood cells.

139

Kilocalorie (kcal)

Equivalent to 1000 calories, it is the unit used to express the energy value of food.

140

Lactase deficiency (lactose intolerance)

A condition characterized by difficulty digesting milk and dairy products; results from an inadequate amount of the enzyme lactase, which beaks down the milk sugar lactose into smaller digestible substances.

141

Lacto-ovovegetarians

Vegetarians who include milk, dairy products, and eggs in their diets and occasionally fish, poultry, and liver.

142

Lactovegetarians

Vegetarians who include dairy products but no eggs in their diets.

143

Pica

The eating of substances not ordinarily considered edible or to have nutritive value.

144

Vegans

Strict vegetarian who eats absolutely no animal products.

145

Early adolescence

Refers to adolescents who are ages 15 to 17 years. to adolescents who are ages 14 years and younger.

146

Emancipated minor

Minors who are legally considered to have assumed the rights of an adult. An adolescent may be considered emancipated if he or she is self-supporting and living away from home, married, pregnant, a parent, or in the military.

147

Late adolescence

Refers to adolescents who are ages 18 to 19 years.

148

Middle adolescence

Refers to adolescents who are ages 15 to 17 years.

149

Amniocentesis

Removal of amniotic fluid by insertion of a needle into the amniotic sac; amniotic fluid is used to assess fetal health or maturity.

150

Biophysical profile (BPP)

Assessment of five variables in the fetus that help to evaluate fetal risk: breathing movement, body movement, tone, amniotic fluid volume, and fetal heart rate reactivity.

151

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Procedure in which a specimen of the chorionic villi is obtained from the edge of the developing placenta at about 8 weeks' gestation. The sample can be used for chromosomal, enzyme, and DNA tests.

152

Contraction stress test (CST)

A method of assessing the reaction of the fetus to the stress of uterine contractions. This test may be utilized when contractions are occurring spontaneously or when contractions are artificially induced by an oxytocin challenge test (OCT) or breast self-stimulation test (BSST).

153

Fetal movement count (FMC)

A method for tracking fetal activity taught to pregnant women. Also called fetal movement record (FMR).

154

Fetal movement record (FMR)

Same as fetal movement count: a method for tracking fetal activity taught to pregnant women.

155

First-trimester combined screening

The First Trimester Screen is a new, optional noninvasive evaluation that combines a maternal blood screening test with an ultrasound evaluation of the fetus to identify risk for specific chromosomal abnormalities, including Down Syndrome Trisomy-21 and Trisomy-18.

156

Lamellar body counts (LBCs)

A fetal test to predict or establish the presence of fetal lung maturity.

157

Lecithin/ sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio

Lecithin and sphingomyelin are phospholipid components of surfactant; their ratio changes during gestation. When the L/S ratio reaches 2:1, the fetal lungs are thought to be mature and the fetus will have a low risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) if born at that time.

158

Nonstress test (NST)

An assessment method by which the reaction (or response) of the fetal heart rate to fetal movement is evaluated.

159

Nuchal translucency testing (NTT)

A genetic screening test that uses ultrasound to scan the translucent or clear area on the back of the fetal neck, measuring the diameter of the area. Fetuses that have a nuchal translucency measurement of greater than 3 mm are at risk for trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and the mother should be offered an amniocentesis.

160

Phosphatidylglycerol (PG)

A phospholipid in surfactant that appears when fetal lung maturity has been attained, at about 35 weeks' gestation. Because PG is not present in blood or vaginal fluids, its presence is reliable in predicting fetal lung maturity.

161

Quadruple screen

Prenatal test of amniotic fluid or blood that assesses for appropriate levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (UE3), and the substance dimeric inhibin-A. It is used to screen for Down syndrome (trisomy 21), trisomy 18, and neural tube defects (NTDs). A more sensitive and accurate detector of trisomy 21 than the triple screen.

162

Surfactant

A surface-active mixture of lipoproteins secreted in the alveoli and air passages that reduces surface tension of pulmonary fluids and contributes to the elasticity of pulmonary tissue.

163

Ultrasound

High-frequency sound waves that may be directed through the use of a transducer, into the maternal abdomen. The ultrasonic sound waves reflected by the underlying structures of varying densities allow identification of various maternal and fetal tissues, bones, and fluids.

164

Umbilical velocimetry

A noninvasive ultrasound test that measures blood flow changes that occur in maternal and fetal circulation in order to assess placental function.

165

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); an immunologic disorder caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and characterized by increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections and rare cancers.

166

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

A form of diabetes of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.

167

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); a virus that causes a progressive disease that ultimately results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

168

Macrosomia

A condition seen in neonates of large body size and high birth weight (more than 4000 to 4500 grams [8lb, 13 oz to 9lb, 4oz]), such as those born of mothers who are prediabetic and diabetic.

169

Psychologic disorders

Abnormal mental or emotional conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior.

170

Abortion

Loss of pregnancy before the fetus is viable outside the uterus; miscarriage.

171

Eclampsia

A major complication of pregnancy. Its cause is unknown; it occurs more often in the primigravida and is accompanied by elevated blood pressure, albuminuria, oliguria, tonic and clonic convulsions, and coma. It may occur during pregnancy (usually after the 20th week of gestation) or within 48 hours after childbirth.

172

Ectopic pregnancy (EP)

Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity: common sites are the abdomen, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Also called oocyesis.

173

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Hemolytic disease of the newborn characterized by anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and generalized edema. Caused by isoimmunization due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility.

174

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD)

Disorder classified into two types: benign (hydatidiform mole) and malignant.

175

HELLP syndrome

A cluster of changes including hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count; sometimes associated with severe preeclampsia.

176

Hydatidform mole

Degenerative process in chorionic villi, giving rise to multiple cysts and rapid growth of the uterus, with hemorrhage.

177

Hydrops fetalis

Hemolytic disease of the newborn characterized by anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and generalized edema. Caused by isoimmunization due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility. See also Erythroblastosis fetalis.

178

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Excessive vomiting during pregnancy, leading to dehydration and starvation.

179

Miscarriage

Abortion that occurs naturally.

180

Preeclampsia

Toxemia of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension, albuminuria, and edema. See also Eclampsia.

181

Rh immune globulin (RhoGAM)

An anti-Rh (D) gamma globulin given after delivery to an Rh-negative mother of an Rh-positive fetus or child. Prevents the development of permanent active immunity to the Rh antigen.

182

Abruptio placentae

Partial or total premature separation of a normally implanted placenta.

183

Cerclage

Surgical procedure in which a stitch is placed in the cervix to prevent a spontaneous abortion or premature birth.

184

Cervical insufficiency

Painless dilation of the cervix without contractions because of a structural or functional defect of the cervix. Also called incompetent cervix.

185

Hydramnios

An excess of amniotic fluid, leading to overdistention of the uterus. Frequently seen in pregnant women who have diabetes, even if there is no coexisting fetal anomaly. Also called polyhydramnios.

186

Oligohydramnios

Decreased amount of amniotic fluid, which may indicate a fetal urinary tract defect.

187

Placenta previa

Abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment. Classification of type is based on proximity to the cervical os: total-completely cvers the os; partial-covers a portion of the os; marginal-is in proximity to the os.

188

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)

Rupture may be PROM (premature), SROM (spontaneous), or AROM (artificial). Some clinicians may use the abbreviation RBOW (rupture of bag of waters).

189

Preterm labor (PTL)

Labor occurring between 20 and 38 weeks' of pregnancy. Also called premature labor.

190

Tocolysis

Use of medications to arrest preterm labor.