Flashcards in OB Mod III terms Deck (190)
The outer two-thirds of the fallopian tube; fertilization of the ovum by a spermatozoon usually occurs here.
Pigmented ring surrounding the nipple of the breast.
A ligament that keeps the uterus centrally placed and provides stability within the pelvic cavity. It is a double layer that is continuous with the abdominal peritoneum. The broad ligament covers the uterus anteriorly and posteriorly and extends outward from the uterus to enfold the fallopian tubes.
1The chief uterine supports, the cardinal ligaments suspend the uterus from the side walls of the true pelvis. Also known as Mackenrodt's or transverse cerical ligaments, they arise from the sides of the pelvic walls and attach the cervix in the upper vagina. They prevent uterine prolapse and support the upper vagina.
The "neck" between the external os and the body of the uterus. The lower end of the cervix extends into the vagina.
The true conjugate, which extends from the middle of the sacral promontory to the middle of the pubic crest.
The elongated portion of the uterus where the fallopian tubes enter.
The upper two-thirds of the uterus.
An ateroposterior diameter that extends from the subpubic angle to the middle of the sacral promontory and is typically 12.5 cm. One of the three diameters that are used to assess the size and shape of the pelvic inlet.
The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the uterus.
The hormones estradiol and estrone, produced by the ovary.
Tubes that extend from the lateral angle of the uterus and terminate near the ovary; they serve as a passageway for the ovum from the ovary to the uterus and for the spermatozoa from the uterus toward the ovary. Also called oviducts and uterine tubes.
The portion above the pelvic brim, or linea terminalis, that serves to support the weight of the enlarged pregnant uterus and direct the presenting fetal part into the true pelvis below.
Female reproductive cycle (FRC)
The monthly rhythmic changes in sexually mature women.
The funnel-like structure at the abdominal opening of the uterine tube that has many fingerlike projections (fimbriae) reaching out to the ovary.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary during the first half of the menstrual cycle, stimulating development of the graafian follicle.
The upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.
The ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum; it secretes estrogens.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
A hormone produced by the chorionic villi and found in the urine of pregnant women. Also called prolan.
The ligament that suspends and supports the ovaries. It arises from the outer third of the broad ligament and contains the ovarian vessels and nerves.
Prominences that arise near the junction of the ilium and ischium and jut into the pelvic cavity; used as a reference point during labor to evaluate the descent of the fetal head into the birth canal.
The straight, narrow part of the fallopian tube with a thick muscular wall and an opening (lumen) 2 to 3 mm in diameter; the sight of tubal ligation. Also, a constriction in the uterus that is located above the cervix and below the corpus.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Anterior pituitary hormone responsible for stimulating ovulation and for development of the corpus luteum.
Uterine muscular structure.
Implantation of a fertilized ovum in the endometrium.
Distance from the middle of the sacral promontory to an area approximately 1 cm below the pubic crest.
Ligaments that anchor the lower pole of the ovary to the cornua of the uterus. They are surrounded by muscle fibers that allow the ligaments to contract.
Normal process of discharging a mature ovum from an ovary approximately 14 days prior to the onset of menses.
The lower portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the urinary bladder, the rectum, and internal parts of the reproductive system. The pelvic cavity is divided into the false pelvis and the true pelvis.
Part of the pelvic floor composed of deep fascia and the levator ani and the coccygeal muscles.
Upper border of the true pelvis.
Lower border of the true pelvis.
1The outermost layer of the corpus of the uterus. Also known as the serosal layer.
A hormone produced by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta whose function is to stimulate proliferation of the endometrium to facilitate growth of the embryo.
Complex lipid compounds synthesized by many cells in the body.
Pertaining to the pubes or pubic area.
Ligaments that arise from the sides of the uterus near the fallopian tube insertions. They extend outward between the folds of the broad ligament, passing through the inguinal ring and canals and eventually fusing with the connective tissue of the labia majora.
A projection into the pelvic cavity on the anterior upper portion of the sacrum; serves as an obstetric guide in determining pelvic measurements.
The male hormone; responsible for the development of secondary male characteristics.
The largest diameter of the pelvic inlet; helps determine the shape of the inlet.
The portion that lies below the linea terminalis, made up of the inlet, cavity, and outlet.
Ligaments that provide support for the uterus and cervix at the level of the ischial spines. They arise on each side of the pelvis from the posterior wall of the uterus and sweep back around the rectum to insert on the sides of the first and second sacral vertebrae.
The hollow muscular organ in which the fertilized ovum is implanted and in which the developing fetus is nourished until birth.
The musculomembranous tube or passageway located between the external genitals and the uterus of a woman.
Breakdown of hyaluronic acid in the corona radiate by enzymes from the heads of sperm; allows one spermatozoon to penetrate the ovum zona pellucida.
The inner of the two membranes that form the sac containing the fetus and the amniotic fluid.
The liquid surrounding the fetus in utero. It absorbs shocks, permits fetal movement, and prevents heat loss.
Bag of waters (BOW)
The membrane containing the amniotic fluid and the fetus.
The inner solid mass of cells within the morula.
Removal of the plasma membrane overlying the spermatozoa's acrosomal area with the loss of seminal plasma proteins and the glycoprotein coat. If the glycoprotein coat is not removed, the sperm will not be able to penetrate the ovum.
The fetal membrane closest to the intrauterine wall that gives rise to the placenta and continues as the outer membrane surrounding the amnion.
Rapid mitotic division of the zygote; cells produced are called blastomeres.
One of the rounded portions into which the placenta's uterine surface is divided, consisting of a mass of villi, fetal vessels, and an intervillous space.
The part of the decidua that unites with the chorion to form the placenta. It is shed in lochial discharge after childbirth.
The part of the decidua surrounding the chorionic sac.
Decidua vera (parietalis)
Nonplacental decidua lining the uterus.
Diploid number of chromosomes
Containing a set of maternal and a set of paternal chromosomes; in humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is 46.
A communication channel between the main pulmonary artery and the aorta of the fetus. It is obliterated after birth by rising PO2 and changes in intravascular pressure in the presence of normal pulmonary functioning. It normally becomes a ligament after birth but sometimes remains patent (patent ductus arteriosus, a treatable condition).
A fetal blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava, bypassing the liver, it becomes a ligament after birth.
Outer layer of cells in the developing embryo that gives rise to the skin, nails, and hair.
The early stage of development of the young of any organism. In humans the embryonic period is from about 2 to 8 weeks' gestation and is characterized by cellular differentiation and predominantly hyperplastic growth.
The amnion and chorion.
The inner layer of cells in the developing embryo that gives rise to internal organs such as the intestines.
Impregnation of an ovum by a spermatozoon; conception.
The child in utero from about the seventh to ninth week of gestation until birth.
Special opening between the atria of the fetal heart. Normally, the opening closes shortly after birth; if it remains open, it can be repaired surgically.
Female or male germ cell; contains a haploid number of chromosomes.
The process by which germ cells are produced.
Haploid number of chromosomes
Half the diploid number of chromosomes. In humans there are 23 chromosomes, the haploid number, in each germ cell.
Fine, downy hair found on all body parts of the fetus, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, after 20 weeks' gestation.
The process of cell division that occurs in the maturation of sperm and ova that decreases their number of chromosomes by one-half.
The intermediate layer of germ cells in the embryo that gives rise to connective tissue, bone marrow, muscles, blood, lymphoid tissue, and epithelial tissue.
Process of cell division whereby both daughter cells have the same number an pattern of chromosomes as the original cell.
Developmental stage of the fertilized ovum in which there is a solid mass of cells.
Specialized disk-shaped organ that connects the fetus to the uterine wall for gas and nutrient exchange. Also called afterbirth.
Postconception age periods
Period of time in embryonic/ fetal development calculated from the time of fertilization of the ovum.
Nongenetic factors that can produce malformations of the fetus.
The outer layer of the blastoderm that will eventually establish the nutrient relationship with the uterine endometrium.
The structure connecting the placenta to the umbilicus of the fetus and through which nutrients from the woman are exchanged for wastes from the fetus.
A protective, cheeselike whitish substance made up of sebum and desqumated epithelial cells that is present on the fetal skin.
Yellow-white gelatinous material surrounding the vessels of the umbilical cord.
A fertilized egg.
Birth preference plan
A written document prepared by expectant parents that is used to identify available options in the birth setting and aspects of the childbearing experience that are most important to them.
A supportive companion who accompanies a laboring woman to provide emotional, physical, and informational support and acts as an advocate for the woman and her family.
A nonprofit organization that promotes breastfeeding and provides information on and assistance with breastfeeding.
Programs offered to expectant families, adolescents, women, or partners to provide education regarding the pregnancy, labor, and birth experience.
A technique of palpation used to detect or examine a floating object in the body. In obstetrics, the fetus, when pushed, floats away and then returns to touch the examiner's fingers.
Braxton Hicks contractions
Intermittent painless contractions of the uterus that may occur every 10 to 20 minutes. They occur more frequently toward the end of pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken for true labor signs.
An objective change or probable sign of pregnancy, is a blue-purple discoloration of the cervix caused by increased vascularization of the uterus during pregnancy.
Chloasma (melisma gravidarum)
Brownish pigmentation over the bridge of the nose and cheeks during pregnancy and in some women who are taking oral contraceptives. Also called "the mask of pregnancy".
In some cultures, the male's observance of certain rituals and taboos to signify the transition to fatherhood.
Separation of the recti abdominis muscles along the median line. In women it is seen with repeated childbirths or multiple gestation. In the newborn, it is usually caused by incomplete development.
Softening of the cervix that occurs during the second month of pregnancy.
A softening of the lower uterine segment found upon palpation in the second or third month of pregnancy.
The line of darker pigmentation extending from the umbilicus to the pubis noted in some women during the later months of pregnancy.
A probable sign of pregnancy characterized by an ease of flexing in the body of the uterus against the cervix.
A term that refers to the nausea and vomiting that a woman may experience in early pregnancy. This lay term is sometimes used because these symptoms frequently occur in the early part of the day and disappear within a few hours.
A collection of thick mucous that blocks the cervical canal during pregnancy. Also called aperculum.
Physiologic anemia of pregnancy
Apparent anemia that results because during pregnancy the plasma volume increases more than the erythrocytes increase.
The first fetal movements felt by the pregnant woman, usually between 16 and 18 weeks gestation.
Striae (striae gravidarum)
Stretch marks; shiny reddish lines that appear on the abdomen, breasts, thighs, and buttocks of pregnant women as a result of stretching the skin.
Supine hypotensive syndrome
Refers to a condition that can develop during pregnancy when the enlarging uterus puts pressure on the vena cava when the woman is supine. This pressure interferes with returning blood flow and produces a marked decrease in blood pressure with accompanying dizziness, pallor, and clamminess, which can be corrected by having the woman lie on her left side. Also called vena caval syndrome or aortocaval compression.
Loss of pregnancy before the fetus is viable outside the uterus; miscarriage.
Time between conception and the onset of labor; usually used to describe the period during which a woman is pregnant.
An ateroposterior diameter that extends from the subpubic angle to the middle of the sacral promontory and is typically 12.5 cm. One of three diameters that are used to assess the size and shape of the pelvic inlet.
Births occurring between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days.
Estimated date of birth (EDB)
During a pregnancy, the approximate date when childbirth will occur; the "due date".
Births occurring between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days.
The number of weeks of pregnancy since the first day of the last menstrual period.
A pregnant woman.
Time from the onset of true labor until the birth of the infant and placenta.
Births occurring between 41 weeks 0 days through 41 weeks 6 days.
Woman who has been pregnant more than once.
Woman who has had more than one pregnancy in which the fetus was viable.
A method of determining the estimated date of birth (EDB): after obtaining the first day of the last menstrual period, subtract 3 months and add 7 days.
A woman who has never been pregnant.
A woman who has not delivered a viable fetus.
Distance from the middle of the sacral promontory to an area approximately 1 cm below the pubic crest.
A woman who has borne offspring who reached the age of viability.
Describing the period after giving birth.
Labor that occurs after 42 gestation.
Preterm or premature labor
Labor occurring between 20 and 38 weeks of pregnancy.
A woman who is pregnant for the first time.
A woman who has given birth to her first child (past the point of viability), whether that child is living or was alive at birth.
Any findings that suggest the pregnancy may have a negative outcome, for either the woman or her unborn child.
The delivery of a dead infant.
The normal duration of pregnancy.
A model of prenatal health care designed to empower women to choose health-promoting behaviors and, as a result, improve prenatal care outcomes.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Syndrome caused by maternal alcohol ingestion and characterized by microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, short palpebral fissures, and maxillary hypoplasia.
Perineal muscle tightening that strengthens the pubococcygeus muscle and increases its tone.
Mucous discharge from the vagina or cervical canal that may be normal or pathologic, as in the presence of infection.
Moving of the fetus and uterus downward into the pelvic cavity.
Exercise designed to reduce back strain and strengthen abdominal muscle tone. Also called pelvic rocking.
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree centigrade.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
A set of nutrient values that can be used to assess and plan intake for individuals of different ages.
A member of the vitamin B complex, required for amino acid metabolism, DNA synthesis, and production of red blood cells.
Equivalent to 1000 calories, it is the unit used to express the energy value of food.
Lactase deficiency (lactose intolerance)
A condition characterized by difficulty digesting milk and dairy products; results from an inadequate amount of the enzyme lactase, which beaks down the milk sugar lactose into smaller digestible substances.
Vegetarians who include milk, dairy products, and eggs in their diets and occasionally fish, poultry, and liver.
Vegetarians who include dairy products but no eggs in their diets.
The eating of substances not ordinarily considered edible or to have nutritive value.
Strict vegetarian who eats absolutely no animal products.
Refers to adolescents who are ages 15 to 17 years. to adolescents who are ages 14 years and younger.
Minors who are legally considered to have assumed the rights of an adult. An adolescent may be considered emancipated if he or she is self-supporting and living away from home, married, pregnant, a parent, or in the military.
Refers to adolescents who are ages 18 to 19 years.
Refers to adolescents who are ages 15 to 17 years.
Removal of amniotic fluid by insertion of a needle into the amniotic sac; amniotic fluid is used to assess fetal health or maturity.
Biophysical profile (BPP)
Assessment of five variables in the fetus that help to evaluate fetal risk: breathing movement, body movement, tone, amniotic fluid volume, and fetal heart rate reactivity.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Procedure in which a specimen of the chorionic villi is obtained from the edge of the developing placenta at about 8 weeks' gestation. The sample can be used for chromosomal, enzyme, and DNA tests.
Contraction stress test (CST)
A method of assessing the reaction of the fetus to the stress of uterine contractions. This test may be utilized when contractions are occurring spontaneously or when contractions are artificially induced by an oxytocin challenge test (OCT) or breast self-stimulation test (BSST).
Fetal movement count (FMC)
A method for tracking fetal activity taught to pregnant women. Also called fetal movement record (FMR).
Fetal movement record (FMR)
Same as fetal movement count: a method for tracking fetal activity taught to pregnant women.
First-trimester combined screening
The First Trimester Screen is a new, optional noninvasive evaluation that combines a maternal blood screening test with an ultrasound evaluation of the fetus to identify risk for specific chromosomal abnormalities, including Down Syndrome Trisomy-21 and Trisomy-18.
Lamellar body counts (LBCs)
A fetal test to predict or establish the presence of fetal lung maturity.
Lecithin/ sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio
Lecithin and sphingomyelin are phospholipid components of surfactant; their ratio changes during gestation. When the L/S ratio reaches 2:1, the fetal lungs are thought to be mature and the fetus will have a low risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) if born at that time.
Nonstress test (NST)
An assessment method by which the reaction (or response) of the fetal heart rate to fetal movement is evaluated.
Nuchal translucency testing (NTT)
A genetic screening test that uses ultrasound to scan the translucent or clear area on the back of the fetal neck, measuring the diameter of the area. Fetuses that have a nuchal translucency measurement of greater than 3 mm are at risk for trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and the mother should be offered an amniocentesis.
A phospholipid in surfactant that appears when fetal lung maturity has been attained, at about 35 weeks' gestation. Because PG is not present in blood or vaginal fluids, its presence is reliable in predicting fetal lung maturity.
Prenatal test of amniotic fluid or blood that assesses for appropriate levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (UE3), and the substance dimeric inhibin-A. It is used to screen for Down syndrome (trisomy 21), trisomy 18, and neural tube defects (NTDs). A more sensitive and accurate detector of trisomy 21 than the triple screen.
A surface-active mixture of lipoproteins secreted in the alveoli and air passages that reduces surface tension of pulmonary fluids and contributes to the elasticity of pulmonary tissue.
High-frequency sound waves that may be directed through the use of a transducer, into the maternal abdomen. The ultrasonic sound waves reflected by the underlying structures of varying densities allow identification of various maternal and fetal tissues, bones, and fluids.
A noninvasive ultrasound test that measures blood flow changes that occur in maternal and fetal circulation in order to assess placental function.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); an immunologic disorder caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and characterized by increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections and rare cancers.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
A form of diabetes of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); a virus that causes a progressive disease that ultimately results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A condition seen in neonates of large body size and high birth weight (more than 4000 to 4500 grams [8lb, 13 oz to 9lb, 4oz]), such as those born of mothers who are prediabetic and diabetic.
Abnormal mental or emotional conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior.
Loss of pregnancy before the fetus is viable outside the uterus; miscarriage.
A major complication of pregnancy. Its cause is unknown; it occurs more often in the primigravida and is accompanied by elevated blood pressure, albuminuria, oliguria, tonic and clonic convulsions, and coma. It may occur during pregnancy (usually after the 20th week of gestation) or within 48 hours after childbirth.
Ectopic pregnancy (EP)
Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity: common sites are the abdomen, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Also called oocyesis.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn characterized by anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and generalized edema. Caused by isoimmunization due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility.
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD)
Disorder classified into two types: benign (hydatidiform mole) and malignant.
A cluster of changes including hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count; sometimes associated with severe preeclampsia.
Degenerative process in chorionic villi, giving rise to multiple cysts and rapid growth of the uterus, with hemorrhage.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn characterized by anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and generalized edema. Caused by isoimmunization due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility. See also Erythroblastosis fetalis.
Excessive vomiting during pregnancy, leading to dehydration and starvation.
Abortion that occurs naturally.
Toxemia of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension, albuminuria, and edema. See also Eclampsia.
Rh immune globulin (RhoGAM)
An anti-Rh (D) gamma globulin given after delivery to an Rh-negative mother of an Rh-positive fetus or child. Prevents the development of permanent active immunity to the Rh antigen.
Partial or total premature separation of a normally implanted placenta.
Surgical procedure in which a stitch is placed in the cervix to prevent a spontaneous abortion or premature birth.
Painless dilation of the cervix without contractions because of a structural or functional defect of the cervix. Also called incompetent cervix.
An excess of amniotic fluid, leading to overdistention of the uterus. Frequently seen in pregnant women who have diabetes, even if there is no coexisting fetal anomaly. Also called polyhydramnios.
Decreased amount of amniotic fluid, which may indicate a fetal urinary tract defect.
Abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment. Classification of type is based on proximity to the cervical os: total-completely cvers the os; partial-covers a portion of the os; marginal-is in proximity to the os.
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)
Rupture may be PROM (premature), SROM (spontaneous), or AROM (artificial). Some clinicians may use the abbreviation RBOW (rupture of bag of waters).
Preterm labor (PTL)
Labor occurring between 20 and 38 weeks' of pregnancy. Also called premature labor.