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Flashcards in OB Mod II terms Deck (91):
1

Active acquired immunity

Formation of antibodies by the pregnant woman or child in response to illness or immunization

2

Brown adipose tissue (BAT)

Fat deposits in neonates that provide greater heat-generating activity than ordinary fat. Found around the kidneys, adrenals, and neck; between the scapulas; and behind the sternum. Also called brown fat.

3

Cardiopulmonary adaptation

Adaptation of the neonate's cardiovascular and respiratory systems to life outside the womb.

4

Conduction

Loss of heat to a cooler surface by direct skin contact.

5

Convection

Loss of heat from the warm body surface to cooler air currents.

6

Evaporation

Loss of heat incurred when water on the skin surface is converted to a vapor.

7

Habituation

Infant's ability to diminish innate responses to specific repeated stimuli.

8

Meconium

Dark green or black material present in the large intestine of a full-term infant; the first stools passed by the newborn.

9

Neonatal transition

The first few hours of life, in which the newborn stabilizes its respiratory and circulatory functions.

10

Neutral thermal environment

(NTE) An environment that provides for minimal heat loss or expenditure.

11

Orientation

Infant's ability to respond to auditory and visual stimuli in the environment.

12

Passive acquired immunity

transfer of antibodies (IgG) from the mother to the fetus in utero

13

Periodic breathing

Sporadic episodes of apnea, not associated with cyanosis, that last for about 10 seconds and commonly occur in preterm infants.

14

Periods of reactivity

Predictable patterns of neonate behavior during the first several hours after birth.

15

Physiologic anemia of infancy

A harmless condition in which the hemoglobin level drops in the first 6-12 weeks after birth, then reverts to normal levels.

16

Physiologic jaundice

A harmless condition caused by the normal reduction of red blood cells, occurring 48 or more hours after birth, peaking at the 5th to 7th day, and disappearing between the 7th and 10th day.

17

Radiation

Heat loss incurred when heat transfers to cooler surfaces and objects not in direct contact with the body.

18

Self-quieting ability

Infant's ability to use personal resources to quiet and console himself or herself.

19

Surfactant

A surface-active mixture of lipoproteins secreted in the alveoli and air passages that reduces surface tension of pulmonary fluids and contributes to the elasticity of pulmonary tissue.

20

Total bilirubin

Sum of conjugated (direct) and unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin.

21

Acrocyanosis

Cyanosis of the extremities.

22

Barlow maneuver

Test designed to detect subluxation or dislocation of the hip. A dysplastic joint will be felt to be dislocated as the femur leaves the acetabulum.

23

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

A brief examination used to identify the infant's behavioral states and responses

24

Caput succedaneum

Swelling or edema occurring in or under the fetal scalp during labor.

25

Cephalohematoma

Subcutaneous swelling containing blood found on the head of an infant several days after birth; it usually disappears within a few weeks to 2 months.

26

Chemical conjunctivitis

Irritation of the mucous membrane lining of the eyelid; may be due to instillation of silver nitrate ophthalmic drops.

27

Epstein pearls

Small, white blebs found along the gum margins and at the junction of the hard and soft palates; commonly seen in the newborn as a normal manifestation.

28

Erb-Duchenne paralysis (Erb's Palsey)

Paralysis of the arm and chest wall as a result of a birth injury to the brachial plexus or a subsequent injury to the fifth and sixth cervical nerves.

29

Erythema toxicum

Innocuous pink popular rash of unknown cause with superimposed vesicles; it appears within 24 to 48 hours after birth and resolves spontaneously within a few days.

30

Forceps marks

Reddened areas over the cheeks and jaws caused by application of forceps. The red areas usually disappear within 1 or 2 days.

31

Gestational age assessment tools

Systems used to evaluate the newborn's external physical characteristics and neurologic and/or neuromuscular development to accurately determine gestational age. These replace or supplement the traditional calculation from the woman's last menstrual period.

32

Harlequin sign

A rare color change that occurs between the longitudinal halves of the newborn's body, such that the dependent half is noticeably pinker than the superior half when the newborn is placed on one side; it is of no pathologic significance.

33

Jaundice

Yellow pigmentation of body tissues caused by the presence of bile pigments. See also physiologic jaundice.

34

Lanugo

Fine, downy hair found on all body parts of the fetus, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, after 20 weeks' gestation.

35

Milia

Tiny white papules appearing on the face of a neonate as a result of unopened sebaceous glands; they disappear spontaneously within a few weeks.

36

Molding

Shaping of the fetal head by overlapping of the cranial bones to facilitate movement through the birth canal during labor.

37

Mongolian blue spots

Macular areas of bluish black or gray-blue pigmentation on the dorsal area and the buttocks that are common in newborns of Asian, Hispanic, and African descent and other dark-skin races. They gradually fade during the first or second year of life.

38

Moro reflex

Flexion of the newborn's thighs and knees accompanied by fingers that fan, then clench, as the arms are simultaneously thrown out and then brought together, as though embracing something. This reflex can be elicited by startling the newborn with a sudden noise or movement. Also called the startle reflex.

39

Mottling

Discoloration of the skin in irregular areas; may be seen with chilling, poor perfusion, or hypoxia.

40

New Ballard Score (NBS)

A postnatal gestational age assessment tool that is used within 12 hours of birth.

41

Nevus Flammeus

Port wine stain

42

Nevus vasculosus

Strawberry mark; raised, clearly delineated, dark-red, rough-surfaced birthmark commonly found in the head region.

43

Ortolani maneuver

A manual procedure performed to rule out the possibility of developmental dysplastic hip.

44

Palmar grasping reflex

A reflex elicited by stimulating the newborn's palm with a finger or object, causing the newborn to firmly grasp the finger or object.

45

Pseudomenstruation

In female infants, in the first weeks of life, a vaginal discharge composed of thick, whitish mucus that can become tinged with blood; caused by the withdrawal of maternal hormones.

46

Rooting reflex

An infant's tendency to turn the head and open the lips to suck when one side of the mouth or cheek is touched.

47

Skin turgor

Elasticity of skin; provides information on hydration status.

48

Stepping reflex

A reflex elicited by holding a newborn up with one foot touching a flat surface; the newborn will put one foot in front of the other and "walk". Pronounced at birth, this reflex disappears between 4 and 8 weeks of age.

49

Subconjunctival hemorrhage

Hemorrhage on the sclera of a newborn's eye, usually caused by changes in vascular tension during birth.

50

Sucking reflex

Normal newborn reflex elicited by inserting a finger or nipple in the newborn's mouth, resulting in forceful, rhythmic sucking.

51

Telangiectatic nevi

Stork bites; small clusters of pink=red spots appearing on the nape of the neck and around the eyes of infants; localized areas of capillary dilation.

52

Thrush

A fungal infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by Candida albicans. Most often seen in infants; characterized by white plaques in the mouth.

53

Tonic neck reflex

Postural reflex seen in the newborn. When the supine infant's head is turned to one side, the arm and leg on that side extend while the extremities on the opposite side flex. Also called the fencing position.

54

Vernix caseosa

A protective, cheeselike, whitish substance made up of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells that is present on the fetal skin.

55

Circumcision

Surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis.

56

Colostrum

Secretion from the breast before the onset of true lactation; contains mainly serum and white blood corpuscles. It has a high protein content, provides some immune properties, and cleanses the neonate's intestinal tract of mucus and meconium.

57

Foremilk

Breast milk obtained at the beginning of the breastfeeding episode.

58

Hindmilk

Breast milk released after initial letdown reflex; high in fat content.

59

Letdown reflex

1Pattern of stimulation, hormone release, and resulting muscle contraction that forces milk into the lactiferous ducts, making it available to the infant. Also called milk ejection reflex.

60

Mature milk

Breast milk that contains 10% solids for energy and growth.

61

Newborn screening tests

Tests that detect inborn errors of metabolism that, if left untreated, cause intellectual and physical disabilities.

62

Oxytocin

1Hormone normally produced by the posterior pituitary, responsible for stimulation of uterine contractions and the release of milk into the lactiferous ducts.

63

Parent-newborn attachment

Close affectional ties that develop between parent and child. See also attachment.

64

Prolactin

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates and sustains lactation in mammals.

65

Transitional milk

Breast milk produced from the end of colostrum production until about 2 weeks postpartum.

66

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

An umbrella term that includes all categories of prenatal alcohol exposure, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). It is not meant to be used as a clinical diagnosis.

67

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Syndrome caused by maternal alcohol inhestion and characterized by microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, short palpebral fissures, and maxillary hypoplasia.

68

Infant of a diabetic mother (IDM)

At-risk infant born to a woman previously diagnosed as diabetic or who develops symptoms of diabetes during pregnancy.

69

Infant of a substance-abusing mother (ISAM)

Formerly called infant of an addicted mother. An infant who is born to a mother who abuses or is addicted to drugs or alcohol.

70

Intrauterine drug-exposed infants

Infants whose mothers used marijuana, alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs while pregnant.

71

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

Fetal undergrowth due to any etiology, such as intrauterine infection, deficient nutrient supply, or congenital malformation. A term used to describe fetuses falling below the 10th percentile in ultrasonic estimation of weight at a given gestational age. Formerly called intrauterine growth retardation.

72

Large-for-gestational-age (LGA)

Excessive growth of a fetus in relation to the gestational time period.

73

Neonatal morbidity

The number of potential cases per year of a disease, illness, or complication occurring in the neonatal period.

74

Neonatal mortality risk

The infant's chance of death within the newborn period-that is, within the first 28 days of life.

75

Postmaturity

Post term newborn; any infant born after 42 weeks' gestation.

76

Postterm newborn

Any infant born after 42 weeks' gestation.

77

Preterm infant

Any infant born before 38 weeks gestation.

78

Small-for-gestational-age (SGA)

Inadequate weight or growth for gestational age; birth weight below the 10th percentile.

79

Acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE)

Kernicterus; the yellow staining and degenerative lesions in basal ganglia associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in infants.

80

Cold stress

Excessive heat loss resulting in compensatory mechanisms (increased respirations and nonshivering thermogenesis) to maintain core body temperature.

81

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Hemolytic disease of the newborn characterized by anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and generalized edema. Caused by isoimmunization due to Rh incompatibility or ABO compatibility.

82

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Hyperbilirubinemia secondary to Rh incompatibility.

83

Hydrops fetalis

Hemolytic disease of the newborn characterized by anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and generalized edema. Caused by isoimmunization due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility. See also erythroblastosis fetalis.

84

Hyperbilirubinemia

Excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood; indicative of hemolytic processes due to blood incompatibility, intrauterine infection, septicemia, neonatal renal infection, and other disorders.

85

Hypoglycemia

Abnormally low level of sugar in the blood.

86

Jaundice

Yellow pigmentation of body tissues caused by the presence of bile pigments. See also physiologic jaundice.

87

Kernicterus

The yellow staining and degenerative lesions in basal ganglia associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in infants. Also known as bilirubin encephalopathy.

88

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)

Respiratory disease of term, postterm, and SGA newborns caused by inhalation of meconium or meconium-stained amniotic fluid into the lungs; characterized by mild to severe respiratory distress, hyperexpansion of the chest, hyperinflated alveoli, and secondary atelectasis.

89

Phototherapy

The treatment of jaundice by exposure to light.

90

Physiologic anemia of infancy

A harmless condition in which the hemoglobin level drops in the first 6 to 12 weeks after birth, then reverts to normal levels.

91

Respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory disease of the newborn characterized by interference with ventilation at the alveolar level, thought to be caused by the presence of fibrinoid deposits lining the alveolar ducts. Formerly called hyaline membrane disease.