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Flashcards in obesity Deck (16):
1

what is obesity?

Excessive body fat •A chronic disease with serious health problems and life-threatening consequences •Risk factor for at least 30 common health conditions with huge demand on health resources •Leads to significant medical, psychological, social, physical and economic impacts

2

bmi

normal = 18.5-24.9/ overweight = 25-29.9/. obese = 30-34.9/ severe obese = 35-39.9/ morbidly obese = over 40

3

risk of obesity?

With BMI > 30 –55% increase in mortality –70% increase in coronary artery disease –75% increase in stroke –400% increased risk of type II diabetes •Obesity can shorten life expectancy by 7 to 15yrs. •A morbidly obese adult has a 33% chance of living to age 65 compared to a person of normal weight  (BMI < 25)

4

obesity conditions?

Diabetes •Hypertension •Lipid disorders •Heart disease •Sleep apnoea •Gallstones •Acid reflux •Osteoarthritis  •Low back pain •Depression •Cancer (breast, colorectal, prostate, endometrial.)

5

psychological impact of obesity?

Depression •Low self-esteem •Social isolation •Lack intimacy •Decreased libido

6

obesity treatment?

Dieting (eg. Weightwatchers, slimming world) •Exercises (eg. Gym) •Medical therapy •Cognitive Behavioural Therapy •Gastric balloons •Weight loss (bariatric) Surgery

7

drug treatments?

Orlistat (Xenical) reduces fat absorption  –Dose dependent  –Side-effects may include oily bowel motion and stomach upset.   •Sibutramine (Reductil) - appetite suppressant. –Reduces food intake by a quarter. •Continued treatment results in weight loss of 711lbs

8

surgical option

Roux en Y gastric bypass •Gastric band insertion •Sleeve gastrectomy All procedures are performed laparoscopically

9

lap roux en Y gastric bypass?

Reduced gastric capacity –Eat fewer meals & reduced snacking Malabsorption –25% of small bowel bypassed

10

down side of lap roux en Y?

Perioperative mortality (1%) & morbidity (10-15%) •Need for open surgical incision <5% •Prolonged recovery •Requirement for long term multivitamins and    mineral supplementation •Potential nutrient deficiencies

11

long term complications?

12

laproscopic gastric band insertion?

Restrictive procedure with production of 30 mls pouch •Eat fewer & smaller meals  •No loss of GIT continuity •Reversible

13

a well adjusted band ?

Good weight loss –Approximately 1.5-2.0 pounds per week •Able to eat most solid foods –Exceptions thick breads and thick meats –Must thoroughly chew food and eat slowly –Comfortably eat a small selected solid meal •No limitations of liquids  –Except during meals –Never recommend high calorie liquids

14

sleeve gastrectomy?

Laparoscopic •85% of stomach removed (not reversible) •Reduces the capacity to eat •May be especially suitable for patients with BMI > 60  •Can be option for patients in whom surgery is particularly high risk.                     cutting the stomach in half                                              risks:    0.5% mortality •Gastric leak 5% •DVT 0.5% •PE 0.5% Removal of spleen 1%                               benefits:      Weight loss of 70 – 120 lbs over 18 months to 2 years •However outcome is less predictable than Roux-en-Y bypass •Long term results remain to be established

15

effects of bariatric surgery?

1035 morbidly obese patients undergoing RYGB vs. 5746 obese age & sex matched controls •Followed < 5 years •89% reduction in mortality after RYGB •0.68% mortality rate vs. 6.1% in controls

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