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Nutrition health and disease > Obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obesity Deck (35):
1

Most widely used measure of overweight or obesity?

Body Mass index (BMI) kg/m2

2

What is taken to account when measuring BMI in people aged 2-18?

Age, gender, height and weight

3

In 2015/16 how many admissions in NHS hospitals were obesity related?

525 thousands

4

What organs can be affected by obesity?

Heart, lungs, brain, skin and GI tract

5

What complications can obesity cause the heart?

Heart Disease or Hypertension

6

What complications can obesity cause the brain

Decrease cognitive function, stroke, depression and anxiety

7

What complications can obesity cause the skin?

Stasis dermatitis or ulcers

8

What is type 2 diabetes and obesity associated with?

Insulin resistance

9

What determines insulin sensitivity?

Body fat distribution

10

What does HbA1c refer to?

Gylcated haemoglobin

11

What can HbA1c also be known as?

Haemoglobin A1c or A1c

12

What makes up total energy expenditure (TEE)?

Resting energy expenditure (REE), Thermic effect of food (TEF) and activity energy expenditure (AEE)

13

Name environmental factors that can increase obesity risk?

Increase in convenience foods, increase in advertising, increased stress, Increase in sugar sweetened beverages, socioeconomic status and sedentary lifestyle

14

What is the role of leptin?

Regulate appetite

15

What is the only current successful hormonal treatment for a monogenic form of human obesity?

leptin replacement therapy

16

What are the characteristics of prader-willi syndrome?

Cognitive impairment, low stature, genital hypoplasia, infertility and severe hunger

17

What causes prader-willi syndrome?

Absence of chromosome 15

18

What is a deoxyribose?

A sugar derived from ribose by replacement of a hydroxl group by hydrogen

19

What does SNP stand for?

Single nucleotide polymorphism

20

What is a Missense mutation?

A change in one DNA base pair that results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein made by a gene

21

What is a nonsense mutation?

A change in one DNA base pair, that signals the cell to stop building a protein. Resulting in a shortened protein that may function improperly or not at all

22

What is an insertion?

An insertion changes the number of DNA bases in a gene by adding a piece of DNA, resulting in the protein made to not function properly

23

What is duplication?

A duplication is when a piece of DNA is abnormally copied one or more times, altering the function of the resulting protein

24

What is a frameshift mutation?

Happens when the addition or loss of DNA bases change a genes reading frame, resulting in a none functioning protein

25

What is a repeat expansion?

Nucloetide repeats are short DNA sequences that are repeated a number of times in a row.

26

Why do SNPS matter?

Least understood and can in part be counteracted by environmental changes such as medication, diet and exercise

27

What is the FTO gene?

The Fat Mass and Obesity gene

28

Where is the FT0 gene located?

Chromosome 16

29

What are the two bands for the sugar tax?

1) For total sugar content above 5g per 100 milliliters
2) Higher band for sugary drinks with more than 8g per 100 milliliters

30

How many g of sugar is recommended per day for people aged 11+?

30g

31

How much more will a sugary drink from band 1 and 2 cost?

Band 1= 18p per litre
Band 2 = 24p per litre

32

What is Tier 1 for obesity focus on?

Primary action, population wide intervention

33

What is Tier 2 for obesity focus on?

Community health services, Gp, school nurse and health visitors. Aim t increase education and exercise

34

What is Tier 3 for obesity focus on?

Intervention time, can be referred to specialist obesity services

35

What does tier 4 for obesity focus on?

Bariatric surgery, gastric band, gastric bypass, sleeve gastectomy, very low calorie diets and residential camps