Flashcards in Obesity Deck (35):
Most widely used measure of overweight or obesity?
Body Mass index (BMI) kg/m2
What is taken to account when measuring BMI in people aged 2-18?
Age, gender, height and weight
In 2015/16 how many admissions in NHS hospitals were obesity related?
What organs can be affected by obesity?
Heart, lungs, brain, skin and GI tract
What complications can obesity cause the heart?
Heart Disease or Hypertension
What complications can obesity cause the brain
Decrease cognitive function, stroke, depression and anxiety
What complications can obesity cause the skin?
Stasis dermatitis or ulcers
What is type 2 diabetes and obesity associated with?
What determines insulin sensitivity?
Body fat distribution
What does HbA1c refer to?
What can HbA1c also be known as?
Haemoglobin A1c or A1c
What makes up total energy expenditure (TEE)?
Resting energy expenditure (REE), Thermic effect of food (TEF) and activity energy expenditure (AEE)
Name environmental factors that can increase obesity risk?
Increase in convenience foods, increase in advertising, increased stress, Increase in sugar sweetened beverages, socioeconomic status and sedentary lifestyle
What is the role of leptin?
What is the only current successful hormonal treatment for a monogenic form of human obesity?
leptin replacement therapy
What are the characteristics of prader-willi syndrome?
Cognitive impairment, low stature, genital hypoplasia, infertility and severe hunger
What causes prader-willi syndrome?
Absence of chromosome 15
What is a deoxyribose?
A sugar derived from ribose by replacement of a hydroxl group by hydrogen
What does SNP stand for?
Single nucleotide polymorphism
What is a Missense mutation?
A change in one DNA base pair that results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein made by a gene
What is a nonsense mutation?
A change in one DNA base pair, that signals the cell to stop building a protein. Resulting in a shortened protein that may function improperly or not at all
What is an insertion?
An insertion changes the number of DNA bases in a gene by adding a piece of DNA, resulting in the protein made to not function properly
What is duplication?
A duplication is when a piece of DNA is abnormally copied one or more times, altering the function of the resulting protein
What is a frameshift mutation?
Happens when the addition or loss of DNA bases change a genes reading frame, resulting in a none functioning protein
What is a repeat expansion?
Nucloetide repeats are short DNA sequences that are repeated a number of times in a row.
Why do SNPS matter?
Least understood and can in part be counteracted by environmental changes such as medication, diet and exercise
What is the FTO gene?
The Fat Mass and Obesity gene
Where is the FT0 gene located?
What are the two bands for the sugar tax?
1) For total sugar content above 5g per 100 milliliters
2) Higher band for sugary drinks with more than 8g per 100 milliliters
How many g of sugar is recommended per day for people aged 11+?
How much more will a sugary drink from band 1 and 2 cost?
Band 1= 18p per litre
Band 2 = 24p per litre
What is Tier 1 for obesity focus on?
Primary action, population wide intervention
What is Tier 2 for obesity focus on?
Community health services, Gp, school nurse and health visitors. Aim t increase education and exercise
What is Tier 3 for obesity focus on?
Intervention time, can be referred to specialist obesity services