Flashcards in Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome Deck (39)
Three hormonal factors that affect weight:
How much energy goes into maintaining the BMR?
What does BMR mean?
Basal metabolic rate
Minimum rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm.
What factors contribute to obesity?
Excess energy intake (calories) are stored as fat
Decreased energy expenditure
Obesity increases the risk of ?
What provides energy?
How much energy does physical activity account for?
What does Leptin do?
Inhibits hunger to regulate energy balance
What are risk factors for obesity?
Heredity (25-40% of obesity)
Psychological (depression, stress, guilt)
What is the difference between mature and immature adipose tissue?
Mature adipose cells do not multiply and
Immature adipose cells DO multiply
When do immature adipose cells multiply?
In presence of estrogen during puberty and late adolescents
Overweight middle aged adults
What is BMI?
And how is it calculated?
Body Mass Index
Calculated by dividing weight (kg) by height (m)
BMI is used an indicator for what?
Obesity and underweight
And what are the classes?
Class I Obese: 30-34.9 kg/m^2
Class II Obese: 35-39.9 kg/m^2
BMI: Morbid obesity
What ratio is used to determine upper body obesity?
Waist : hip
>1 in men
>0.8 in women
In upper body obesity there are increased levels of what?
Circulating free fatty acids
With upper body obesity, there is an increased risk of what?
What ratio is used for lower body obesity?
Waist : hip
With lower body obesity there is decreased risk of what?
What is more difficult to treat upper/lower?
What are possible complications of obesity?
Coronary heart disease
What is possible reproductive impairment complication for men?
What is possible reproductive impairment complication for women?
Polycystic ovary syndrome
What is polycystic ovary syndrome?
Hormonal disorder causing enlarged ovaries with small cysts on the outer edges
What are some ways obesity can be managed?