Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome Flashcards Preview

Med/Surg 1 Exam 3 > Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...
1

Three hormonal factors that affect weight:

Leptin
Insulin
Thyroid

2

How much energy goes into maintaining the BMR?

70%

3

What does BMR mean?

Basal metabolic rate
Minimum rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm.

4

What factors contribute to obesity?

Excess energy intake (calories) are stored as fat
Decreased energy expenditure
Appetite
Gastrointestinal filling
Hormonal factors
Emotions

5

Obesity increases the risk of ?

Morbidity
Mortality

6

What provides energy?

Nutrients

7

How much energy does physical activity account for?

5-10%

8

What does Leptin do?

Inhibits hunger to regulate energy balance

9

What are risk factors for obesity?

Heredity (25-40% of obesity)
Physical inactivity
Cultural factors
Environmental
Socioeconomic
Psychological (depression, stress, guilt)
Addiction
Coping mechanism

10

What is the difference between mature and immature adipose tissue?

Mature adipose cells do not multiply and
Immature adipose cells DO multiply

11

When do immature adipose cells multiply?

In presence of estrogen during puberty and late adolescents
During breastfeeding
Overweight middle aged adults

12

What is BMI?
And how is it calculated?

Body Mass Index
Weight-to-height ratio
Calculated by dividing weight (kg) by height (m)

13

BMI is used an indicator for what?

Obesity and underweight

14

BMI: Underweight

>18.5 kg/m^2

15

BMI: Normal

18.5-24.9 kg/m^2

16

BMI: Overweight

25-29.9 kg/m^2

17

BMI: Obese
And what are the classes?

30-39.9 kg/m^2
Class I Obese: 30-34.9 kg/m^2
Class II Obese: 35-39.9 kg/m^2

18

BMI: Morbid obesity

>40 kg/m^2
Class III

19

What ratio is used to determine upper body obesity?
Men?
Women?

Waist : hip

>1 in men
>0.8 in women

20

In upper body obesity there are increased levels of what?

Circulating free fatty acids

21

With upper body obesity, there is an increased risk of what?

HTN
Dyslipidemia
Heart disease
Stroke
Hyperinsulinemia

22

What ratio is used for lower body obesity?

Waist : hip

23

With lower body obesity there is decreased risk of what?

Hyperlipidema
Abnormal lipids
Heart disease

24

What is more difficult to treat upper/lower?

Lower

25

What are possible complications of obesity?

HTN
Coronary heart disease
Heart failure
Stroke
Metabolic syndrome
Insulin resistance
DM2
Sleep apnea
Gallstones
Cancer
Joint pain/OA

26

What is possible reproductive impairment complication for men?

Androgen

27

What is possible reproductive impairment complication for women?

Menstrual irregularity
Polycystic ovary syndrome

28

What is polycystic ovary syndrome?

Hormonal disorder causing enlarged ovaries with small cysts on the outer edges

29

What are some ways obesity can be managed?

Diet
Exercise
Behavior modification
Pharmacotherapy
Surgery
Education

30

What are some diagnostic tests used for obesity?

BMI
Skin folds
Hydrodensitometry
Bioelectrical impulse
Waist circumference
Dual energy xray absorptiometry
Labs