Flashcards in Wound Care Deck (50)
What are the three types of healing?
What is part of primary intention healing?
Tissue surfaces approximated
Minimal or no tissue loss
Minimal granulation tissue and scar
What is part of secondary intention healing?
Edges cannot or should not be approximated
Repair time longer
More scarring and risk of infection
What is part of tertiary intention healing?
Left open for 3-5 days and then closed
Allows edema to resolve exudate to drain
Closed with sutures, staples, or adhesive skin closures
"Delayed primary intention"
What are the phases of wound healing?
Maturation phase (remodeling)
What are some complications of wound healing?
What are some modifiable factors for wound healing?
What happens in the hemostasis phase?
Cessation of bleeding
Vasoconstriction and formation of clot
- Scab inhibits infection
- Epithelial cells migrate into wound- prevent entry of microorganisms
What happens in the inflammatory phase?
Blood supply increases
- Erythema and edema
- Exudate cleanses wound
- Neutrophils first 24 hours
- Replaced by macrophages
- Crucial to healing
What happens in the proliferative phase?
Day 3-4 to 21 days
- Fibroblasts synthesize collagen: adds strength to wound
- Capillaries grow across wound, bring fibrin
- Granulation tissue forms
- Light red or pink
What happens in the maturation phase?
From day 21 up to 1-2 years
- Fibroblasts continue to synthesize collagen
- Wound site is remodeled and contracted
- Scar becomes stronger
What happens with a hemorrhage complication?
May bleed uncontrollably: emergency
Surgery may be needed
Hematoma under wound may obstruct blood flow to area
What happens with an infection complication?
- Microbes compete for oxygen and nutrition: impairs wound healing
- Change in wound color, pain, drainage
- May occur during injury, surgery, or post-op
- Confirmed by culture
- May have fever, elevated WBC
- Immunosuppressed increased risk
What happens with a dehiscence complication?
- Partial or total rupture of sutured wound
- Cover with sterile saline gauze
- Patient to bed with knees bent
- Notify doctor
What happens with an evisceration complication?
- Protrusion of internal viscera through an incision
- Cover with large sterile dressing
- Patient in bed with knees bent
- Notify surgeon immediately
What are some risk factors for evisceration?
Failure to suture
When does evisceration usually occur?
4-5 days post-op
Vitamins A and C
Regular exercise leads to better circulation
Smokers at risk for delayed healing
What is serous exudate?
Clear, thin, watery plasma.
Normal during inflammatory: in small amounts Moderate to heavy amount may indicate a high bioburden.
What is sanguineous exudate?
In deep partial-thickness and full-thickness wounds.
Small amount may be normal during the inflammatory stage
What is Serosanguineous exudate
Thin, watery, and pale red to pink in color
The pink tinge indicates damage to the capillaries with dressing changes
What is a clinical manifestation of wounds?
What is purulent exudate?
Thick and opaque
Tan, yellow, green, or brown in color
Never normal in a wound bed.
What are the different types of exudate?
Why are elderly patients at risk for impaired wound healing?
Impaired liver function
Delayed inflammatory response
Slowed collagen synthesis
What is a diagnostic test for wounds?
Wound culture and sensitivity
When would there be a need for an emergency surgery for wounds?
Repair tissue or vessels