Flashcards in Pneumonia/ TB Deck (68)
What is pneumonia?
Acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma
May be infectious or not infectious
How do microbes enter the lungs?
Inhalation or aspiration of secretions from the oropharynx
Where can the microbes also enter besides the lungs?
What are normal defenses against pneumonia?
Cilia lining the respiratory tract
What do endotoxins cause?
Congestion and edema
What releases endotoxins?
What happens to the alveoli and bronchioles when they are invaded?
What are the different ways pneumonia is acquired?
How does bacterial pneumonia occur?
Entrance to the lungs via bloodstream
Aspiration of resident bacteria
Person to person via droplet
Characteristics of bacterial pneumonia?
Damage cells and usually in one lung
Even distribution of microbes
What is the most common of bacterial pneumonia?
What is a hospital associated bacterial pneumonia?
What is walking pneumonia?
Caused by mycoplasmas
Symptoms similar to but milder than those of bacterial or viral pneumonia
Walking pneumonia typically affects what population?
School-age children and adults under 40.
How does viral pneumonia occur?
Enter from upper airway and infiltrate alveoli in one or both lungs
Characteristics of viral pneumonia?
Invade cells and kill them, send out debris
Influenza and adenovirus
What are some other causes of infectious pneumonia?
Fungi and protozoa
What is aspiration pneumonia?
Infectious or non-infectious
Chemical injury and inflammatory response
What are some causes of aspiration pneumonia?
What are some complications of pneumonia ?
What are risk factors for pneumonia ?
Cancer, organ transplant
Chronic illnesses- DM, cardiac, respiratory
Endotracheal intubation (VAP)
What is VAP?
Ventilator Associated Pneumonia
Why are infants at risk?
Immature immune system
Why are the elderly at risk?
Decreases cough and gag
What are some ways of prevention of pneumonia?
Early identification and appropriate treatment
What are some types of vaccines for pneumonia?
PCV13- children under 2
Hib- children under 2
What are some clinical manifestations of pneumonia?
Cough (productive, purulent)
What are the lifespan considerations with infants and children?
Airway shorter and more narrow
High risk of obstruction
Higher O2 consumption
Tachypnea, intercostal retractions, nasal flaring
Recover faster than adults
Common in kids with CF
What are the lifespan considerations of older adults?
Decreased cough and gag
Thick, viscous secretions
Meds, H/O smoking, COPD