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Flashcards in Pneumonia/ TB Deck (68)
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1

What is pneumonia?

Acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma
May be infectious or not infectious

2

How do microbes enter the lungs?

Inhalation or aspiration of secretions from the oropharynx

3

Where can the microbes also enter besides the lungs?

Bloodstream

4

What are normal defenses against pneumonia?

Cough reflex
Pulmonary macrophages
Nasopharyngeal defenses
Cilia lining the respiratory tract

5

What do endotoxins cause?

Congestion and edema

6

What releases endotoxins?

Microbes

7

What happens to the alveoli and bronchioles when they are invaded?

Inflammation
Immune response

8

What are the different ways pneumonia is acquired?

Bacterial
Viral
Fungi
Aspiration

9

How does bacterial pneumonia occur?

Entrance to the lungs via bloodstream
Aspiration of resident bacteria
Person to person via droplet

10

Characteristics of bacterial pneumonia?

Damage cells and usually in one lung
Even distribution of microbes

11

What is the most common of bacterial pneumonia?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

12

What is a hospital associated bacterial pneumonia?

Staph aureus

13

What is walking pneumonia?

Caused by mycoplasmas
Symptoms similar to but milder than those of bacterial or viral pneumonia

14

Walking pneumonia typically affects what population?

School-age children and adults under 40.

15

How does viral pneumonia occur?

Enter from upper airway and infiltrate alveoli in one or both lungs

16

Characteristics of viral pneumonia?

Invade cells and kill them, send out debris
Patchy distribution
Influenza and adenovirus

17

What are some other causes of infectious pneumonia?

Fungi and protozoa

18

What is aspiration pneumonia?

Infectious or non-infectious
Chemical injury and inflammatory response

19

What are some causes of aspiration pneumonia?

Food
Emesis
Reflux
Hydrocarbons

20

What are some complications of pneumonia ?

Bronchiectasis
Pleuritis
Pleural effusion
Lung abscess
Empyema

21

What are risk factors for pneumonia ?

Infants
Elderly
HIV/AIDS
Cancer, organ transplant
Chronic illnesses- DM, cardiac, respiratory
Endotracheal intubation (VAP)
NG tubes
Smoking, alcoholism

22

What is VAP?

Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

23

Why are infants at risk?

Immature immune system

24

Why are the elderly at risk?

Decreases cough and gag

25

What are some ways of prevention of pneumonia?

Early identification and appropriate treatment
Vaccines

26

What are some types of vaccines for pneumonia?

Pneumococcal
PCV13- children under 2
PPSV23- adults
Hib- children under 2
Influenza

27

What are some clinical manifestations of pneumonia?

Fever, chills
Cough (productive, purulent)
Chest pain
Blood-tinged sputum
SOB
Decreased appetite
Cyanosis
Crackles
Wheezing

28

What are the lifespan considerations with infants and children?

Airway shorter and more narrow
High risk of obstruction
Higher O2 consumption
Tachypnea, intercostal retractions, nasal flaring
Blood cultures
Usually bacterial
Recover faster than adults
Common in kids with CF

29

What are the lifespan considerations of older adults?

Decreased cough and gag
Thick, viscous secretions
Decreased cilia
Meds, H/O smoking, COPD

30

What are some diagnostic studies that can be performed for pneumonia?

CXR
CT scan
Sputum C&S and Gram stain
CBC with diff
Serology- pathogen antibodies
Pulse ox
ABG
Bronchoscopy