Obstructive Sleep Apnea Flashcards Preview

Hospital Dentistry - ABGD Oral Boards > Obstructive Sleep Apnea > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Deck (16)
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1

What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

  • Syndrome that results from a repetitive pharyngeal narrowing and collapse during sleep

2

What are some OSA Systemic Effects?

  • Hypertension
  • Myocardial Ischemia/Infaraction
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Arrhythmias
  • Cerebrovascular Accidents
  • Death

3

Define Apnea...

Observed cessation of inspiratory effort for greater than 10 seconds during sleep...leads to oxygen desaturation

4

Define Hypopnea...

> 30% reduction in airflow for > or equal to 10 from baseline with > 4% 02 desaturation

5

What is the cause of Snoring (noisy breathing - rhoncus)?

Vibration of the uvula and osft palate against the posterior wall of the oropharynx

6

How does one arrive to the AHI value?

Apnea + Hypopnea Index...

Apnea + Hypopnea Index which is calculated by adding the number of apneas to the hypopneas divided by the number of hours of sleep

7

What value is synonmymous with AHI?

RDI

Respiratory Disturbance Index 

8

What does RERA stand for?

Respiratory Effort Related Arousals

9

What are some OSA Risk Factors?

  • Obesity present in 60-90% of OSA patients
  • Gender: male:female ratio 2-3:1
  • Nasal Obstruction
  • Craniofacial abnormalities
  • Mandibular retrognathia
  • Micrognathia
  • Macroglossia
  • Narrowed, tapered, and short max arch
  • Overbite
  • Long soft palate
  • Mallampati grade III or IV
  • Tonsillar hypertrophy
  • Neck circumference
  • Increase Snoring

10

What are some OSA symptoms?

  • Loud snoring
  • EDS (daytime sleepiness)
  • Sleep fragmentation
  • Mental deterioration
  • Depression
  • Reduced sleep latency

11

What are some different tests for Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

  • Epworth Sleepiness Scale
  • Multiple Sleep Latency Test
  • Home/Ambulatory
  • Polysomnography (PSG)

12

What AHI value must you have to be diagnosed with OSA?

> 5/hr

  • Daytime sleepiness
  • Witnessed noctural apneas
  • Awakening with choking
  • Breath holding
  • Gasping

 

 

13

What are the values for a normal AHI, Mild OSA, Moderate OSA, and Severe OSA?

  • Classified by number of apneic/hypopneic episodes per hour
  • AHI < 5 Normal
  • AHI > or equal to 5 < 15 = Mild OSA
  • AHI > or equal to 15 < or equal to 30 = Moderate OSA
  • AHI > 30 = Severe OSA

14

What are some Non-Surgical OSA Treatments?

  • Weight loss/behavior modification
  • Drug therapy
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Gold Standard)
  • Dental appliance

15

What OSA classifications are Dental Appliances Indicated?

Dental devices are indicated in snoring and mild-moderate OSA patients after medical evalution and referral

16

What are some Surgical treatment for OSA?

  • Tosilloadenoidectomy
  • UPPP (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty)
  • LAUP (laser assited uvulopalatoplasty)
  • Anterior mandibular osteotomy
  • Bimaxillary advancement